OkHttp 官方教程解析 - 彻底入门 OkHttp 使用

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2016-05-03
原文链接:blog.csdn.net

       最近半年来身边开发的朋友越来越多的提到OkHttp,上谷歌百度一下,确实OkHttp成了时下最火的HTTP框架,于是我也开始放下Volley,转而关注OkHttp,五一期间仔细看了官方WiKi介绍(我喜欢学习官方的文档),现在把自己整理的官方教程分享给大家,希望给初学者带来帮助。
       OkHttp官网地址:square.github.io/okhttp/
       OkHttp GitHub地址:github.com/square/okht…
官网的自我介绍:
       HTTP is the way modern applications network. It’s how we exchange data & media. Doing HTTP efficiently makes your stuff load faster and saves bandwidth.
OkHttp is an HTTP client that’s efficient by default:

•   HTTP/2 support allows all requests to the same host to share a socket.
•   Connection pooling reduces request latency (if HTTP/2 isn’t available).
•   Transparent GZIP shrinks download sizes.
•   Response caching avoids the network completely for repeat requests.

       OkHttp perseveres when the network is troublesome: it will silently recover from common connection problems. If your service has multiple IP addresses OkHttp will attempt alternate addresses if the first connect fails. This is necessary for IPv4+IPv6 and for services hosted in redundant data centers. OkHttp initiates new connections with modern TLS features (SNI, ALPN), and falls back to TLS 1.0 if the handshake fails.
       Using OkHttp is easy. Its request/response API is designed with fluent builders and immutability. It supports both synchronous blocking calls and async calls with callbacks.
       OkHttp supports Android 2.3 and above. For Java, the minimum requirement is 1.7.
       概括起来说OkHttp是一款优秀的HTTP框架,它支持get请求和post请求,支持基于Http的文件上传和下载,支持加载图片,支持下载文件透明的GZIP压缩,支持响应缓存避免重复的网络请求,支持使用连接池来降低响应延迟问题。

配置方法

(一)导入Jar包
点击下面链接下载最新v3.2.0 JAR
repo1.maven.org/maven2/com/…
(二)通过构建方式导入
MAVEN


  com.squareup.okhttp3
  okhttp
  3.2.0

GRADLE

compile 'com.squareup.okhttp3:okhttp:3.2.0'

基本要求

Requests(请求)

       每一个HTTP请求中都应该包含一个URL,一个GET或POST方法以及Header或其他参数,当然还可以含特定内容类型的数据流。

Responses(响应)

       响应则包含一个回复代码(200代表成功,404代表未找到),Header和定制可选的body。

基本使用

       在日常开发中最常用到的网络请求就是GET和POST两种请求方式。

HTTP GET

OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient();
String run(String url) throws IOException {
    Request request = new Request.Builder().url(url).build();
    Response response = client.newCall(request).execute();
    if (response.isSuccessful()) {
        return response.body().string();
    } else {
        throw new IOException("Unexpected code " + response);
    }
}

Request是OkHttp中访问的请求,Builder是辅助类,Response即OkHttp中的响应。
Response类:

public boolean isSuccessful()
Returns true if the code is in [200..300), which means the request was successfully received, understood, and accepted.
response.body()返回ResponseBody类

可以方便的获取string

public final String string() throws IOException
Returns the response as a string decoded with the charset of the Content-Type header. If that header is either absent or lacks a charset, this will attempt to decode the response body as UTF-8.
Throws:
IOException

当然也能获取到流的形式:
public final InputStream byteStream()

HTTP POST

POST提交Json数据

public static final MediaType JSON = MediaType.parse("application/json; charset=utf-8");
OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient();
String post(String url, String json) throws IOException {
    RequestBody body = RequestBody.create(JSON, json);
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
      .url(url)
      .post(body)
      .build();
    Response response = client.newCall(request).execute();
    f (response.isSuccessful()) {
        return response.body().string();
    } else {
        throw new IOException("Unexpected code " + response);
    }
}

使用Request的post方法来提交请求体RequestBody
POST提交键值对
OkHttp也可以通过POST方式把键值对数据传送到服务器

OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient();
String post(String url, String json) throws IOException {
    RequestBody formBody = new FormEncodingBuilder()
    .add("platform", "android")
    .add("name", "bug")
    .add("subject", "XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX")
    .build();

    Request request = new Request.Builder()
      .url(url)
      .post(body)
      .build();

    Response response = client.newCall(request).execute();
    if (response.isSuccessful()) {
        return response.body().string();
    } else {
        throw new IOException("Unexpected code " + response);
    }
}

案例

布局文件:




    

        

    

这里写图片描述
Java代码:
由于android本身是不允许在UI线程做网络请求操作的,所以我们自己写个线程完成网络操作

import android.os.Bundle;
import android.support.v7.app.AppCompatActivity;
import android.util.Log;
import android.view.View;
import android.widget.Button;

import com.squareup.okhttp.FormEncodingBuilder;
import com.squareup.okhttp.OkHttpClient;
import com.squareup.okhttp.Request;
import com.squareup.okhttp.RequestBody;
import com.squareup.okhttp.Response;

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity implements View.OnClickListener {

    private Button bt_get;
    private Button bt_post;

    final OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient();

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main2);

        bt_get=(Button)findViewById(R.id.bt_get);
        bt_post=(Button)findViewById(R.id.bt_post);

        bt_get.setOnClickListener(this);
        bt_post.setOnClickListener(this);

    }

    @Override
    public void onClick(View view) {
        switch (view.getId()){
            case R.id.bt_get:
                getRequest();
                break;

            case R.id.bt_post:
                postRequest();
                break;

        }
    }

    private void getRequest() {

        final Request request=new Request.Builder()
                .get()
                .tag(this)
                .url("http://www.wooyun.org")
                .build();

        new Thread(new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                Response response = null;
                try {
                    response = client.newCall(request).execute();
                    if (response.isSuccessful()) {
                        Log.i("WY","打印GET响应的数据:" + response.body().string());
                    } else {
                        throw new IOException("Unexpected code " + response);
                    }
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
        }).start();

    }

    private void postRequest() {

        RequestBody formBody = new FormEncodingBuilder()
                .add("","")
                .build();

        final Request request = new Request.Builder()
                .url("http://www.wooyun.org")
                .post(formBody)
                .build();

        new Thread(new Runnable() {
            @Override
            public void run() {
                Response response = null;
                try {
                    response = client.newCall(request).execute();
                    if (response.isSuccessful()) {
                        Log.i("WY","打印POST响应的数据:" + response.body().string());
                    } else {
                        throw new IOException("Unexpected code " + response);
                    }
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
        }).start();

    }

}

执行结果:
这里写图片描述

官方Recipes

Synchronous Get(同步Get)

下载一个文件,打印他的响应头,以string形式打印响应体。
       响应体的 string() 方法对于小文档来说十分方便、高效。但是如果响应体太大(超过1MB),应避免适应 string()方法 ,因为他会将把整个文档加载到内存中。对于超过1MB的响应body,应使用流的方式来处理body。

private final OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient();

  public void run() throws Exception {
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
        .url("http://publicobject.com/helloworld.txt")
        .build();

    Response response = client.newCall(request).execute();
    if (!response.isSuccessful()) throw new IOException("Unexpected code " + response);

    Headers responseHeaders = response.headers();
    for (int i = 0; i < responseHeaders.size(); i++) {
      System.out.println(responseHeaders.name(i) + ": " + responseHeaders.value(i));
    }

    System.out.println(response.body().string());
  }

Asynchronous Get(异步Get)

       在一个工作线程中下载文件,当响应可读时回调Callback接口。读取响应时会阻塞当前线程。OkHttp现阶段不提供异步api来接收响应体。

private final OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient();

  public void run() throws Exception {
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
        .url("http://publicobject.com/helloworld.txt")
        .build();

    client.newCall(request).enqueue(new Callback() {
      @Override public void onFailure(Call call, IOException e) {
        e.printStackTrace();
      }

      @Override public void onResponse(Call call, Response response) throws IOException {
        if (!response.isSuccessful()) throw new IOException("Unexpected code " + response);

        Headers responseHeaders = response.headers();
        for (int i = 0, size = responseHeaders.size(); i < size; i++) {
          System.out.println(responseHeaders.name(i) + ": " + responseHeaders.value(i));
        }

        System.out.println(response.body().string());
      }
    });
  }

典型的HTTP头 像是一个 Map

private final OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient()

  public void run() throws Exception {
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
        .url("https://api.github.com/repos/square/okhttp/issues")
        .header("User-Agent", "OkHttp Headers.java")
        .addHeader("Accept", "application/json; q=0.5")
        .addHeader("Accept", "application/vnd.github.v3+json")
        .build()

    Response response = client.newCall(request).execute()
    if (!response.isSuccessful()) throw new IOException("Unexpected code " + response)

    System.out.println("Server: " + response.header("Server"))
    System.out.println("Date: " + response.header("Date"))
    System.out.println("Vary: " + response.headers("Vary"))
  }

Posting a String(Post方式提交String)

       使用HTTP POST提交请求到服务。这个例子提交了一个markdown文档到web服务,以HTML方式渲染markdown。因为整个请求体都在内存中,因此避免使用此api提交大文档(大于1MB)。

public static final MediaType MEDIA_TYPE_MARKDOWN
      = MediaType.parse("text/x-markdown; charset=utf-8");

  private final OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient();

  public void run() throws Exception {
    String postBody = ""
        + "Releases\n"
        + "--------\n"
        + "\n"
        + " * _1.0_ May 6, 2013\n"
        + " * _1.1_ June 15, 2013\n"
        + " * _1.2_ August 11, 2013\n";

    Request request = new Request.Builder()
        .url("https://api.github.com/markdown/raw")
        .post(RequestBody.create(MEDIA_TYPE_MARKDOWN, postBody))
        .build();

    Response response = client.newCall(request).execute();
    if (!response.isSuccessful()) throw new IOException("Unexpected code " + response);

    System.out.println(response.body().string());
  }

Post Streaming(Post方式提交流)

       以流的方式POST提交请求体。请求体的内容由流写入产生。这个例子是流直接写入Okio的BufferedSink。你的程序可能会使用OutputStream,你可以使用BufferedSink.outputStream()来获取。.

public static final MediaType MEDIA_TYPE_MARKDOWN
      = MediaType.parse("text/x-markdown; charset=utf-8");

  private final OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient();

  public void run() throws Exception {
    RequestBody requestBody = new RequestBody() {
      @Override public MediaType contentType() {
        return MEDIA_TYPE_MARKDOWN;
      }

      @Override public void writeTo(BufferedSink sink) throws IOException {
        sink.writeUtf8("Numbers\n");
        sink.writeUtf8("-------\n");
        for (int i = 2; i <= 997;="" i++)="" {="" sink.writeutf8(string.format("="" *="" %s="%s\n"," i,="" factor(i)));="" }="" private="" string="" factor(int="" n)="" for="" (int="" i="2;" <="" n;="" int="" x="n" i;="" if="" (x="" return="" factor(x)="" +="" "="" ×="" integer.tostring(n);="" };="" request="" request.builder()="" .url("https:="" api.github.com="" markdown="" raw")="" .post(requestbody)="" .build();="" response="" (!response.issuccessful())="" throw="" new="" ioexception("unexpected="" code="" response);="" system.out.println(response.body().string());="" }<="">

Posting a File(Post方式提交文件)

以文件作为请求体是十分简单的。

public static final MediaType MEDIA_TYPE_MARKDOWN
      = MediaType.parse("text/x-markdown; charset=utf-8");

  private final OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient();

  public void run() throws Exception {
    File file = new File("README.md");

    Request request = new Request.Builder()
        .url("https://api.github.com/markdown/raw")
        .post(RequestBody.create(MEDIA_TYPE_MARKDOWN, file))
        .build();

    Response response = client.newCall(request).execute();
    if (!response.isSuccessful()) throw new IOException("Unexpected code " + response);

    System.out.println(response.body().string());
  }

       使用FormEncodingBuilder来构建和HTML标签相同效果的请求体。键值对将使用一种HTML兼容形式的URL编码来进行编码。

private final OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient();

  public void run() throws Exception {
    RequestBody formBody = new FormBody.Builder()
        .add("search", "Jurassic Park")
        .build();
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
        .url("https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php")
        .post(formBody)
        .build();

    Response response = client.newCall(request).execute();
    if (!response.isSuccessful()) throw new IOException("Unexpected code " + response);

    System.out.println(response.body().string());
  }

Posting a multipart request(Post方式提交分块请求)

       MultipartBuilder可以构建复杂的请求体,与HTML文件上传形式兼容。多块请求体中每块请求都是一个请求体,可以定义自己的请求头。这些请求头可以用来描述这块请求,例如他的Content-Disposition。如果Content-Length和Content-Type可用的话,他们会被自动添加到请求头中。

private static final String IMGUR_CLIENT_ID = "...";
  private static final MediaType MEDIA_TYPE_PNG = MediaType.parse("image/png");

  private final OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient();

  public void run() throws Exception {
    
    RequestBody requestBody = new MultipartBody.Builder()
        .setType(MultipartBody.FORM)
        .addFormDataPart("title", "Square Logo")
        .addFormDataPart("image", "logo-square.png",
            RequestBody.create(MEDIA_TYPE_PNG, new File("website/static/logo-square.png")))
        .build();

    Request request = new Request.Builder()
        .header("Authorization", "Client-ID " + IMGUR_CLIENT_ID)
        .url("https://api.imgur.com/3/image")
        .post(requestBody)
        .build();

    Response response = client.newCall(request).execute();
    if (!response.isSuccessful()) throw new IOException("Unexpected code " + response);

    System.out.println(response.body().string());
  }

Parse a JSON Response With Gson(使用GSON解析JSON响应)

       Gson是一个在JSON和Java对象之间转换非常方便的api。这里我们用Gson来解析Github API的JSON响应。
注意:ResponseBody.charStream()使用响应头Content-Type指定的字符集来解析响应体。默认是UTF-8。

private final OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient();
  private final Gson gson = new Gson();

  public void run() throws Exception {
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
        .url("https://api.github.com/gists/c2a7c39532239ff261be")
        .build();
    Response response = client.newCall(request).execute();
    if (!response.isSuccessful()) throw new IOException("Unexpected code " + response);

    Gist gist = gson.fromJson(response.body().charStream(), Gist.class);
    for (Map.Entry entry : gist.files.entrySet()) {
      System.out.println(entry.getKey());
      System.out.println(entry.getValue().content);
    }
  }

  static class Gist {
    Map files;
  }

  static class GistFile {
    String content;
  }

Response Caching(响应缓存)

       为了缓存响应,你需要一个你可以读写的缓存目录,和缓存大小的限制。这个缓存目录应该是私有的,不信任的程序应不能读取缓存内容。
       一个缓存目录同时拥有多个缓存访问是错误的。大多数程序只需要调用一次new OkHttp(),在第一次调用时配置好缓存,然后其他地方只需要调用这个实例就可以了。否则两个缓存示例互相干扰,破坏响应缓存,而且有可能会导致程序崩溃。
       响应缓存使用HTTP头作为配置。你可以在请求头中添加Cache-Control: max-stale=3600 ,OkHttp缓存会支持。你的服务通过响应头确定响应缓存多长时间,例如使用Cache-Control: max-age=9600。

private final OkHttpClient client

  public CacheResponse(File cacheDirectory) throws Exception {
    int cacheSize = 10 * 1024 * 1024
    Cache cache = new Cache(cacheDirectory, cacheSize)

    client = new OkHttpClient.Builder()
        .cache(cache)
        .build()
  }

  public void run() throws Exception {
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
        .url("http://publicobject.com/helloworld.txt")
        .build()

    Response response1 = client.newCall(request).execute()
    if (!response1.isSuccessful()) throw new IOException("Unexpected code " + response1)

    String response1Body = response1.body().string()
    System.out.println("Response 1 response:          " + response1)
    System.out.println("Response 1 cache response:    " + response1.cacheResponse())
    System.out.println("Response 1 network response:  " + response1.networkResponse())

    Response response2 = client.newCall(request).execute()
    if (!response2.isSuccessful()) throw new IOException("Unexpected code " + response2)

    String response2Body = response2.body().string()
    System.out.println("Response 2 response:          " + response2)
    System.out.println("Response 2 cache response:    " + response2.cacheResponse())
    System.out.println("Response 2 network response:  " + response2.networkResponse())

    System.out.println("Response 2 equals Response 1? " + response1Body.equals(response2Body))
  }

       为了防止使用缓存的响应,可以用CacheControl.FORCE_NETWORK。为了防止它使用网络,使用CacheControl.FORCE_CACHE。需要注意的是:如果您使用FORCE_CACHE和网络的响应需求,OkHttp则会返回一个504提示,告诉你不可满足请求响应。
       Canceling a Call(取消一个Call)
       使用Call.cancel()可以立即停止掉一个正在执行的call。如果一个线程正在写请求或者读响应,将会引发IOException。当call没有必要的时候,使用这个api可以节约网络资源。例如当用户离开一个应用时。不管同步还是异步的call都可以取消。
       你可以通过tags来同时取消多个请求。当你构建一请求时,使用RequestBuilder.tag(tag)来分配一个标签。之后你就可以用OkHttpClient.cancel(tag)来取消所有带有这个tag的call。.

 private final ScheduledExecutorService executor = Executors.newScheduledThreadPool(1)
  private final OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient()

  public void run() throws Exception {
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
        .url("http://httpbin.org/delay/2") // This URL is served with a 2 second delay.
        .build()

    final long startNanos = System.nanoTime()
    final Call call = client.newCall(request)

    // Schedule a job to cancel the call in 1 second.
    executor.schedule(new Runnable() {
      @Override public void run() {
        System.out.printf("%.2f Canceling call.%n", (System.nanoTime() - startNanos) / 1e9f)
        call.cancel()
        System.out.printf("%.2f Canceled call.%n", (System.nanoTime() - startNanos) / 1e9f)
      }
    }, 1, TimeUnit.SECONDS)

    try {
      System.out.printf("%.2f Executing call.%n", (System.nanoTime() - startNanos) / 1e9f)
      Response response = call.execute()
      System.out.printf("%.2f Call was expected to fail, but completed: %s%n",
          (System.nanoTime() - startNanos) / 1e9f, response)
    } catch (IOException e) {
      System.out.printf("%.2f Call failed as expected: %s%n",
          (System.nanoTime() - startNanos) / 1e9f, e)
    }
  }

Timeouts(超时)

       没有响应时使用超时结束call。没有响应的原因可能是客户点链接问题、服务器可用性问题或者这之间的其他东西。OkHttp支持连接,读取和写入超时。

private final OkHttpClient client;

  public ConfigureTimeouts() throws Exception {
    client = new OkHttpClient.Builder()
        .connectTimeout(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
        .writeTimeout(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
        .readTimeout(30, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
        .build();
  }

  public void run() throws Exception {
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
        .url("http://httpbin.org/delay/2") 
        .build();

    Response response = client.newCall(request).execute();
    System.out.println("Response completed: " + response);
  }

Per-call Configuration(每个Call的配置)

       使用OkHttpClient,所有的HTTP Client配置包括代理设置、超时设置、缓存设置。当你需要为单个call改变配置的时候,clone 一个 OkHttpClient。这个api将会返回一个浅拷贝(shallow copy),你可以用来单独自定义。下面的例子中,我们让一个请求是500ms的超时、另一个是3000ms的超时。

private final OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient()

  public void run() throws Exception {
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
        .url("http://httpbin.org/delay/1") // This URL is served with a 1 second delay.
        .build()

    try {
      // Copy to customize OkHttp for this request.
      OkHttpClient copy = client.newBuilder()
          .readTimeout(500, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS)
          .build()

      Response response = copy.newCall(request).execute()
      System.out.println("Response 1 succeeded: " + response)
    } catch (IOException e) {
      System.out.println("Response 1 failed: " + e)
    }

    try {
      // Copy to customize OkHttp for this request.
      OkHttpClient copy = client.newBuilder()
          .readTimeout(3000, TimeUnit.MILLISECONDS)
          .build()

      Response response = copy.newCall(request).execute()
      System.out.println("Response 2 succeeded: " + response)
    } catch (IOException e) {
      System.out.println("Response 2 failed: " + e)
    }
  }

Handling authentication(处理验证)

       OkHttp会自动重试未验证的请求。当响应是401 Not Authorized时,Authenticator会被要求提供证书。Authenticator的实现中需要建立一个新的包含证书的请求。如果没有证书可用,返回null来跳过尝试。

 private final OkHttpClient client;

  public Authenticate() {
    client = new OkHttpClient.Builder()
        .authenticator(new Authenticator() {
          @Override public Request authenticate(Route route, Response response) throws IOException {
            System.out.println("Authenticating for response: " + response);
            System.out.println("Challenges: " + response.challenges());
            String credential = Credentials.basic("jesse", "password1");
            return response.request().newBuilder()
                .header("Authorization", credential)
                .build();
          }
        })
        .build();
  }

  public void run() throws Exception {
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
        .url("http://publicobject.com/secrets/hellosecret.txt")
        .build();

    Response response = client.newCall(request).execute();
    if (!response.isSuccessful()) throw new IOException("Unexpected code " + response);

    System.out.println(response.body().string());
  }

To avoid making many retries when authentication isn’t working, you can return null to give up. For example, you may want to skip the retry when these exact credentials have already been attempted:

if (credential.equals(response.request().header("Authorization"))) {
    return null; 
   }
You may also skip the retry when you’ve hit an application-defined attempt limit:
  if (responseCount(response) >= 3) {
    return null; 
  }
This above code relies on this responseCount() method:
  private int responseCount(Response response) {
    int result = 1;
    while ((response = response.priorResponse()) != null) {
      result++;
    }
    return result;
  }

OkHttp官方文档:github.com/square/okht…
参考链接:www.cnblogs.com/ct2011/p/39…

下一篇文章,我将会从具体开发的角度,封装一个高效的OkHttp框架分享给大家。

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