iOS 开发中的这些权限,你搞懂了吗?

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2016-07-06
原文链接:www.jianshu.com

懵懂也是一种美

写在前面

  • APP开发避免不开系统权限的问题,如何在APP以更加友好的方式向用户展示系统权限,似乎也是开发过程中值得深思的一件事;
  • 那如何提高APP获取iOS系统权限的通过率呢?有以下几种方式:1.在用户打开APP时就向用户请求权限;2.告知用户授权权限后能够获得好处之后,再向用户请求权限;3.在绝对必要的情况下才向用户请求权限,例如:用户访问照片库时请求访问系统相册权限;4.在展示系统权限的对话框前,先向用户显示自定义的对话框,若用户选择不允许,默认无操作,若用户选择允许,再展示系统对话框。

  • 上述情况在开发过程中是经常遇到的,不同方式的选择会影响最后用户交互体验。这一点感悟正是源于上一周工作遇到的问题:适配iOS10,如何获取应用联网权限用以管理系统对话框的显示管理。当我把这个问题解决后,感觉有必要将常用的iOS系统权限做一个总结,以便后用。

权限分类

  • 联网权限
  • 相册权限
  • 相机、麦克风权限
  • 定位权限
  • 推送权限
  • 通讯录权限
  • 日历、备忘录权限

联网权限

  • 引入头文件 @import CoreTelephony;
  • 应用启动后,检测应用中是否有联网权限

    CTCellularData *cellularData = [[CTCellularData alloc]init];
    cellularData.cellularDataRestrictionDidUpdateNotifier =  ^(CTCellularDataRestrictedState state){
      //获取联网状态
      switch (state) {
          case kCTCellularDataRestricted:
              NSLog(@"Restricrted");
              break;
          case kCTCellularDataNotRestricted:
              NSLog(@"Not Restricted");
              break;
          case kCTCellularDataRestrictedStateUnknown:
              NSLog(@"Unknown");
              break;
          default:
              break;
      };
    };
  • 查询应用是否有联网功能

    CTCellularData *cellularData = [[CTCellularData alloc]init];
    CTCellularDataRestrictedState state = cellularData.restrictedState;
     switch (state) {
      case kCTCellularDataRestricted:
          NSLog(@"Restricrted");
          break;
      case kCTCellularDataNotRestricted:
          NSLog(@"Not Restricted");
          break;
      case kCTCellularDataRestrictedStateUnknown:
          NSLog(@"Unknown");
          break;
      default:
          break;
    }

相册权限--iOS 9.0之前

  • 导入头文件@import AssetsLibrary;
  • 检查是否有相册权限

     ALAuthorizationStatus status = [ALAssetsLibrary authorizationStatus];
    switch (status) {
      case ALAuthorizationStatusAuthorized:
          NSLog(@"Authorized");
          break;
      case ALAuthorizationStatusDenied:
          NSLog(@"Denied");
          break;
      case ALAuthorizationStatusNotDetermined:
          NSLog(@"not Determined");
          break;
      case ALAuthorizationStatusRestricted:
          NSLog(@"Restricted");
          break;
    
      default:
          break;
    }

相册权限--iOS 8.0之后

  • 导入头文件@import Photos;
  • 检查是否有相册权限

    PHAuthorizationStatus photoAuthorStatus = [PHPhotoLibrary authorizationStatus];
    switch (photoAuthorStatus) {
      case PHAuthorizationStatusAuthorized:
          NSLog(@"Authorized");
          break;
      case PHAuthorizationStatusDenied:
          NSLog(@"Denied");
          break;
      case PHAuthorizationStatusNotDetermined:
          NSLog(@"not Determined");
          break;
      case PHAuthorizationStatusRestricted:
          NSLog(@"Restricted");
          break;
      default:
          break;
    }
  • ![Uploading 144446-b8aca7ba38c5f8c0_695906.png . . .]获取相册权限

     [PHPhotoLibrary requestAuthorization:^(PHAuthorizationStatus status) {
      if (status == PHAuthorizationStatusAuthorized) {
          NSLog(@"Authorized");
      }else{
          NSLog(@"Denied or Restricted");
      }
      }];

相机和麦克风权限

  • 导入头文件@import AVFoundation;
  • 检查是否有相机或麦克风权限

    AVAuthorizationStatus AVstatus = [AVCaptureDevice authorizationStatusForMediaType:AVMediaTypeVideo];//相机权限
    AVAuthorizationStatus AVstatus = [AVCaptureDevice authorizationStatusForMediaType:AVMediaTypeAudio];//麦克风权限
    
    switch (AVstatus) {
      case AVAuthorizationStatusAuthorized:
          NSLog(@"Authorized");
          break;
      case AVAuthorizationStatusDenied:
          NSLog(@"Denied");
          break;
      case AVAuthorizationStatusNotDetermined:
          NSLog(@"not Determined");
          break;
      case AVAuthorizationStatusRestricted:
          NSLog(@"Restricted");
          break;
      default:
          break;
    }
  • 获取相机或麦克风权限

    [AVCaptureDevice requestAccessForMediaType:AVMediaTypeVideo completionHandler:^(BOOL granted) {//相机权限
      if (granted) {
          NSLog(@"Authorized");
      }else{
          NSLog(@"Denied or Restricted");
      }
    }];
    
    [AVCaptureDevice requestAccessForMediaType:AVMediaTypeAudio completionHandler:^(BOOL granted) {//麦克风权限
      if (granted) {
          NSLog(@"Authorized");
      }else{
          NSLog(@"Denied or Restricted");
      }
    }];

定位权限

  • 导入头文件@import CoreLocation;
  • 由于iOS8.0之后定位方法的改变,需要在info.plist中进行配置;

配置文件

  • 检查是否有定位权限

     BOOL isLocation = [CLLocationManager locationServicesEnabled];
    if (!isLocation) {
      NSLog(@"not turn on the location");
    }
    CLAuthorizationStatus CLstatus = [CLLocationManager authorizationStatus];
    switch (CLstatus) {
      case kCLAuthorizationStatusAuthorizedAlways:
          NSLog(@"Always Authorized");
          break;
      case kCLAuthorizationStatusAuthorizedWhenInUse:
          NSLog(@"AuthorizedWhenInUse");
          break;
      case kCLAuthorizationStatusDenied:
          NSLog(@"Denied");
          break;
      case kCLAuthorizationStatusNotDetermined:
          NSLog(@"not Determined");
          break;
      case kCLAuthorizationStatusRestricted:
          NSLog(@"Restricted");
          break;
      default:
          break;
    }
  • 获取定位权限

    CLLocationManager *manager = [[CLLocationManager alloc] init];
    [manager requestAlwaysAuthorization];//一直获取定位信息
    [manager requestWhenInUseAuthorization];//使用的时候获取定位信息
  • 在代理方法中查看权限是否改变

    - (void)locationManager:(CLLocationManager *)manager didChangeAuthorizationStatus:(CLAuthorizationStatus)status{
     switch (status) {
      case kCLAuthorizationStatusAuthorizedAlways:
          NSLog(@"Always Authorized");
          break;
      case kCLAuthorizationStatusAuthorizedWhenInUse:
          NSLog(@"AuthorizedWhenInUse");
          break;
      case kCLAuthorizationStatusDenied:
          NSLog(@"Denied");
          break;
      case kCLAuthorizationStatusNotDetermined:
          NSLog(@"not Determined");
          break;
      case kCLAuthorizationStatusRestricted:
          NSLog(@"Restricted");
          break;
      default:
          break;
      }
    
    }

推送权限

  • 检查是否有通讯权限

      UIUserNotificationSettings *settings = [[UIApplication sharedApplication] currentUserNotificationSettings];
    switch (settings.types) {
      case UIUserNotificationTypeNone:
          NSLog(@"None");
          break;
      case UIUserNotificationTypeAlert:
          NSLog(@"Alert Notification");
          break;
      case UIUserNotificationTypeBadge:
          NSLog(@"Badge Notification");
          break;
      case UIUserNotificationTypeSound:
          NSLog(@"sound Notification'");
          break;
    
      default:
          break;
    }
  • 获取推送权限

    UIUserNotificationSettings *setting = [UIUserNotificationSettings settingsForTypes:UIUserNotificationTypeSound | UIUserNotificationTypeAlert | UIUserNotificationTypeBadge categories:nil];
    [[UIApplication sharedApplication] registerUserNotificationSettings:setting];

通讯录权限

  • 导入头文件 @import AddressBook;
  • 检查是否有通讯录权限

     ABAuthorizationStatus ABstatus = ABAddressBookGetAuthorizationStatus();
    switch (ABstatus) {
      case kABAuthorizationStatusAuthorized:
          NSLog(@"Authorized");
          break;
      case kABAuthorizationStatusDenied:
          NSLog(@"Denied'");
          break;
      case kABAuthorizationStatusNotDetermined:
          NSLog(@"not Determined");
          break;
      case kABAuthorizationStatusRestricted:
          NSLog(@"Restricted");
          break;
      default:
          break;
    }
  • 获取通讯录权限

    ABAddressBookRef addressBook = ABAddressBookCreateWithOptions(NULL, NULL);
    ABAddressBookRequestAccessWithCompletion(addressBook, ^(bool granted, CFErrorRef error) {
      if (granted) {
          NSLog(@"Authorized");
          CFRelease(addressBook);
      }else{
          NSLog(@"Denied or Restricted");
      }
    });

日历、备忘录权限

  • 导入头文件
  • 检查是否有日历或者备忘录权限

     typedef NS_ENUM(NSUInteger, EKEntityType) {
      EKEntityTypeEvent,//日历
      EKEntityTypeReminder //备忘
     };
  • EKAuthorizationStatus EKstatus = [EKEventStore  authorizationStatusForEntityType:EKEntityTypeEvent];
    switch (EKstatus) {
      case EKAuthorizationStatusAuthorized:
          NSLog(@"Authorized");
          break;
      case EKAuthorizationStatusDenied:
          NSLog(@"Denied'");
          break;
      case EKAuthorizationStatusNotDetermined:
          NSLog(@"not Determined");
          break;
      case EKAuthorizationStatusRestricted:
          NSLog(@"Restricted");
          break;
      default:
          break;
    }
  • 获取日历或备忘录权限

    EKEventStore *store = [[EKEventStore alloc]init];
    [store requestAccessToEntityType:EKEntityTypeEvent completion:^(BOOL granted, NSError * _Nullable error) {
      if (granted) {
          NSLog(@"Authorized");
      }else{
          NSLog(@"Denied or Restricted");
      }
    }];

最后一点

  • 素有获取权限的方法,多用于用户第一次操作应用,iOS 8.0之后,将这些设置都整合在一起,并且可以开启或关闭相应的权限。所有的权限都可以通过下面的方法打开:

    [[UIApplication sharedApplication] openURL:[NSURL URLWithString:UIApplicationOpenSettingsURLString]];

上述的权限多为经常用到的权限,当然不会很全面,大家如有需要其他的权限,可以在下方评论,我会及时加上去的。
希望这篇文章能够给大家的开发带来一些便利。
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