谷歌推出 Python 性能加速方案 - 掘金

Overview Grumpy is a Python to Go source code transcompiler and runtime that is intended to be a near drop in re | 掘金是中国质量最高的技术分享社区,邀请稀土用户作为 Co-Editor 来分享优质的技术干货,从前端到后端开发,从设计到产品,让每一个掘金用户都能挖掘到有价值的干货。

谷歌推出 Python 性能加速方案

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2017-01-06
谷歌发布了一个 Python 性能加速方案 - Grumpy,可以将 Python 代码转译(transcompile)为 Go 源代码,然后再编译为 Native Code。 —— 由稀土君分享

Build Status

Overview

Grumpy is a Python to Go source code transcompiler and runtime that is intended to be a near drop in replacement for CPython 2.7. The key difference is that it compiles Python source code to Go source code which is then compiled to native code, rather than to bytecode. This means that Grumpy has no VM. The compiled Go source code is a series of calls to the Grumpy runtime, a Go library serving a similar purpose to the Python C API (although the C API is not directly supported).

Limitations

Things that will probably never be supported by Grumpy

  1. exec, eval and compile: These dynamic features of CPython are not supported by Grumpy because Grumpy modules consist of statically compiled Go code. Supporting dynamic execution would require bundling Grumpy programs with the compilation toolchain which would be unwieldy and impractically slow.

  2. C extension modules: Grumpy has a different API and object layout than CPython and so supporting C extensions would be difficult. In principle it's possible to support them via an API bridge layer like the one that JyNI provides for Jython but it would be hard to maintain and would add significant overhead when calling into and out of extension modules.

Things that Grumpy will support but doesn't yet

There are three basic categories of incomplete functionality:

  1. Language features: Most language features are implemented with the notable exception of decorators. There are also a handful of operators that aren't yet supported.

  2. Builtin functions and types: There are a number of missing functions and types in __builtins__ that have not been implemented. There are also a lot of methods on builtin types that are missing.

  3. Standard library: The Python standard library is very large and much of it is pure Python, so as the language features and builtins get filled out, many modules will just work. But there are also a number of libraries in CPython that are C extension modules that need to be rewritten. This includes re, itertools and others.

Running Grumpy Programs

Method 1: grumprun:

The simplest way to execute a Grumpy program is to use make run, which wraps a shell script called grumprun that takes Python code on stdin and builds and runs the code under Grumpy. All of the commands below are assumed to be run from the root directory of the Grumpy source code distribution:

echo "print 'hello, world'" | make run

Method 2: grumpc:

For more complicated programs you'll want to compile your Python source code to Go using grumpc (the Grumpy compiler) and then build the Go code using go build. First, write a simple .py script:

echo 'print "hello, world"' > hello.py

Next, build the toolchain and export some environment variables that make the toolchain work:

make
export GOPATH=$PWD/build
export PYTHONPATH=$PWD/build/lib/python2.7/site-packages

Finally, compile the Python script and build a binary from it:

tools/grumpc hello.py > hello.go
go build -o hello hello.go

Now execute the ./hello binary to your heart's content.

Developing Grumpy

There are three main components and depending on what kind of feature you're writing, you may need to change one or more of these.

grumpc

Grumpy converts Python programs into Go programs and grumpc is the tool responsible for parsing Python code and generating Go code from it. grumpc is written in Python and uses the ast module to accomplish parsing.

The grumpc script itself lives at tools/grumpc. It is supported by a number of Python modules in the compiler subdir.

Grumpy Runtime

The Go code generated by grumpc performs operations on data structures that represent Python objects in running Grumpy programs. These data structures and operations are defined in the grumpy Go library (source is in the runtime subdir of the source distribution). This runtime is analogous to the Python C API and many of the structures and operations defined by grumpy have counterparts in CPython.

Grumpy Standard Library

Much of the Python standard library is written in Python and so it "just works" in Grumpy. These parts of the standard library are copied from CPython 2.7 (possibly with light modifications). For licensing reasons, these files are kept in the third_party/stdlib subdir.

The parts of the standard library that cannot be written in pure Python, e.g. file and directory operations, are kept in the lib subdir. In CPython these kinds of modules are written as C extensions. In Grumpy they are written in Python but they use native Go extensions to access facilities not otherwise available in Python.

Source Code Overview

  • compiler: Python package implementating Python -> Go transcompilation logic.
  • lib: Grumpy-specific Python standard library implementation.
  • runtime: Go source code for the Grumpy runtime library.
  • third_party/stdlib: Pure Python standard libraries copied from CPython.
  • tools: Transcompilation and utility binaries.

Contact

Questions? Comments? Drop us a line at grumpy-users@googlegroups.com.