单元测试中,如何注入presenter到Activity中?

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2017-08-14
原文链接:github.com

1. Introduction

Here is a code snippet that you may face every day.

public class DemoActivity extends Activity {
    private DemoPresenter presenter;
    
    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle b){
        super.onCreate(b);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_demo);
        
        presenter = new DemoPresenter();
        presenter.init();                
    }
}

This snippet should be good enough, if you don't write unit test. Now what if you want to unit test Activity, you may want to mock a presenter to isolate the dependency.

P.S. The isolation of dependency in unit test is super importatnt.

  • If a class contains logic about http, database, you will obviously not want your test failed just because the http timeout or database connection failure. If the unit test failed, the only reason should be code is broken, not the connection timeout or other external reasons. Then you should write a mock class and inject it to the target.
  • If a class is very complicated, which contains a bunch of different error and different logic (default, login, illegal user, eligible user, user that forget his/her password, ...), it would be very difficult to reproduce all these scenario. But a mocked class would be a big help for you. You can use when(mockObject.getUserType()).thenReturn(Login) to mimic the logic scenario and all the other scenarios you want.

2. Why is it so hard to inject a Presenter?

The reason why this injection is hard is we already init a presenter inside Activity.onCreate(). That said, it hard to inject the presenter that we mocked to the Activity.

Then what if we have a setter injection?

public class DemoActivity extends Activity {
    private DemoPresenter presenter;
    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle b){
        super.onCreate(b);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_demo);
        
        setPresenter(new DemoPresenter(); // that does not help.
        presenter.init();                
    }
    
    public void setPresenter(DemoPresenter presenter){
        this.presenter = presenter;
    }
}

You see the setPresenter(new DemoPresenter(); actually does not differ from the presenter = new DemoPresenter(). We still cannot make sure our solution could work on both scenarios :

  • Production code use the new DemoPresenter()
  • Test code use the mocked DemoPresenter

3. Approach 01: Dagger2

The first approach is the Dagger2. Dagger2 is a tool for injection, so you can separate the initilization and the use of one class. Of course, this is the aim we try to get in this post.

Here is what we should do.

  • create a Component
@Component
public interface SamplePresenterComponent {
    void inject(SampleActivity activity);
}

This Component actually builds a bridge that connect the user of one class and the generator of that class.

  • create a Presenter (object generator)
public class SamplePresenter {
    @Inject
    public SamplePresenter() {..}
}
  • create the Activity (user of object)
public class SampleActivity extends Activity implements ISampleView {

    @Inject SamplePresenter presenter;

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);

        DaggerSamplePresenterComponent.builder()
            .build()
            .inject(this);
    }

In order to make it testable, we add a setComponent(SampleComponent) method. So you can add another Component that get a mocked object to unit test.

4. Approach 02: Setter Injection

I think it's fair to say that Dagger2 is hard to learn. The learning curve is super steep. Lots of developer are not satisfied about Dagger2. Besides, the project app you are working on may not use Dagger2 dependency. It's kind of heavy to use Dagger2 just for unit test one class.

So here is another approach: Setter Injection. It's a simple but powerful solution. Here is the code:

public class DemoActivity extends Activity {
    private DemoPresenter presenter;
    @Override
    public void onCreate(Bundle b){
        super.onCreate(b);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_demo);
        
        if (presenter == null){ //
            setPresenter(new DemoPresenter();
        }
        presenter.init();                
    }
    
    public void setPresenter(DemoPresenter presenter){
        this.presenter = presenter;
    }
}

In the production code, you will get a initialized DemoPresenter object.

In the test code, you need to delay the execution of Activity.onCreate().

@RunWith(RobolectricTestRunner.class)
@Config(constants = BuildConfig.class, sdk = 21)
public class DemoActivityTest {
    private LifeInjectActivity actv;
    private ActivityController<DemoActivity> actvController;
    @Mock private DemoPresenter presenter ;

    @Before
    public void setUp() throws Exception {
        MockitoAnnotations.initMocks(this);

        actvController = Robolectric.buildActivity(LifeInjectActivity.class);
        actv = actvController.get(); // ▼ Do not call "create()" here. We want to delay this method.
    }


    @Test
    public void testLifeInjectIsSuccessful(){
        presenter.setView(actv);
        actv.setPresenter(presenter);

        actvController.create(); // ▼ After we got the activity object, and inject the presenter, then we call Activity.onCreate(). (aka. activityController.create())
        assertEquals("refresh: FakeOne", actv.stage);
    }
}

As the comments above point out, you should delay the execution of "activityController.create()". So that you can inject the mocked presenter first, then you can start the Activity.onCreate().

5. Conclusion

Approach 02 is a simple but powerful way. It does not need Dagger2, and quite easy to write. I stronly recommend approach 02.

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