a16z 总结的一份区块链及数字货币知识图谱

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2018-03-12
原文链接:a16z.com

Here’s a list — building on and including Chris’ last roundup — of crypto readings and resources. It’s organized from building blocks and basics; foundations (& history); and key concepts — followed by specific topics such as governance; privacy and security; scaling; consensus; cryptoeconomics and investing; fundraising and token distribution; decentralized exchanges; stablecoins; and cryptoeconomic primitives (crytocollectibles, curation markets, games). We also included a section with developer tutorials, practical guides, and maker stories — as well as other resources, such as newsletters and courses, at the end.

We’ll soon be updating this regularly at crypto.a16z.com, for now we’ll keep it updated here. You can also find most of a16z’s writings, posts, and videos on the topic at a16z.com/crypto.

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Building Blocks and Basics

WTF is the blockchain? — understanding the problem it solves before defining it
by Mohit Mamoria
hackernoon.com/wtf-is-the-…

Ever wonder how bitcoin (and other cryptocurrencies) actually work?
from 3Blue1Brown
youtu.be/bBC-nXj3Ng4

How the bitcoin protocol actually works
by Michael Nielsen
www.michaelnielsen.org/ddi/how-the…

Ethereum in 25 minutes
by Vitalik Buterin
youtu.be/66SaEDzlmP4

How does Ethereum work, anyway? — how it functions at a technical level, without complex math
by Preethi Kasireddy
medium.com/@preethikas…

Decrypting crypto, from bitcoin and blockchain to ICOs
by Alex Rampell
a16z.com/2017/12/08/…

Cryptographic hash function — what they are, properties of, etc.
by Khan Academy
youtu.be/0WiTaBI82Mc

basic primer on blockchain — ledger basics, why it matters
by Chris Berg, Sinclair Davidson, and Jason Potts
medium.com/@cryptoecon…

basic terminology for Ethereum — from gas to dapps (distributed apps)
by Matt Condon
medium.com/@mattcondon…

a basic glossary of terms — a few short and simple definitions
tangelo.co/insights/bl…

Beginner’s guide series on cryptoassets (series) — from ethereum to litecoin
by Linda Xie
medium.com/@linda.xie/… 

Foundations (& History)

Bitcoin whitepaper (2009): A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System
by Satoshi Nakamoto
bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf

Ethereum whitepaper (2013+): A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform
by Vitalik Buterin et al
github.com/ethereum/wi…

The Byzantine Generals Problem (1982)
by Leslie Lamport, Robert Shostak, and Marshall Pease
people.eecs.berkeley.edu/~luca/cs174…

The Agoric papers series (1988)
by Mark Miller and K. Eric Drexler
e-drexler.com/d/09/00/Ago…

The idea of smart contracts (1997)
by Nick Szabo
www.fon.hum.uva.nl/rob/Courses…

Why bitcoin matters (2014)
by Marc Andreessen
dealbook.nytimes.com/2014/01/21/…

Bitcoin’s academic pedigree (2017)
by Arvind Narayanan and Jeremy Clark
queue.acm.org/detail.cfm?…

Key Concepts

Beyond the bitcoin bubble
by Steven Johnson
www.nytimes.com/2018/01/16/…

Crypto tokens: A breakthrough in open network design
by Chris Dixon
medium.com/@cdixon/cry… 

Crypto tokens and the coming age of protocol innovation
by Albert Wenger
continuations.com/post/148098… 

Fat protocols
by Joel Monegro
www.usv.com/blog/fat-pr… 

Cryptocurrencies, app coins, and investing in protocols
Olaf Carson-Wee, Chris Dixon, and Sonal Chokshi
a16z.com/2017/04/03/…

Getting applications into people’s hands
Juan Benet and Chris Dixon
a16z.com/2017/09/14/…

Blockchain: what is it good for? — including smart contracts
by Ed Felten
freedom-to-tinker.com/2018/02/26/…

How the U.S. government used blockchain to fight fraud
by Kathryn Haun
youtu.be/507wn9VcSAE 

Bitcoin network effects
by Elad Gil
blog.eladgil.com/2017/12/bit…

Keepers: workers that maintain blockchain networks — when designed correctly, tokens can act like rocket-fuel for driving network effects by incentivizing desired behaviors
by Ryan Zurrer
medium.com/@rzurrer/ke…

The quiet master of cryptocurrency — Nick Szabo in conversation with Naval Ravikant
by Tim Ferris
tim.blog/2017/06/04/…

Why crypto tokens matter
Fred Ehrsam and Chris Dixon
a16z.com/2017/09/28/…

Why it’s hard to “get” bitcoin: the blockchain spectrum
by Dhruv Bansal
blog.unchained-capital.com/blockchain-…

Money, blockchains, and social scalability
by Nick Szabo
unenumerated.blogspot.com/2017/02/mon…

What do we mean by “blockchains are trustless”?
by Preethi Kasireddy
medium.com/@preethikas… 

Why decentralization matters — from eras of the internet to cryptonetworks
by Chris Dixon
medium.com/@cdixon/why…

The meaning of decentralization — but what does that actually mean? nuances, depth
by Vitalik Buterin
medium.com/@VitalikBut…

Quantifying decentralization — we must be able to measure blockchain decentralization before we can improve it
by Balaji Srinivasan and Leland Lee
news.earn.com/quantifying…

The truth about blockchain — framework for adoption to help big company executives understand state of development; strategic investments; challenges, resources, processes to facilitate adoption
by Marco Iansiti and Karim Lakhani
hbr.org/2017/01/the…

The slow death of the firm
by Nick Tomaino
thecontrol.co/the-slow-de…

Vitalik Buterin, creator of Ethereum — Unchained: big ideas from the worlds of blockchain and cryptocurrency
by Laura Shin
itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/…

Mental models for understanding tokens
Nick Tomaino and Chris Dixon
a16z.com/2018/01/21/…

Governance

The myth of the irrational token holder — why blockchain governance doesn’t fit squarely into any existing model
by Kathleen Breitman
medium.com/@kathleenbr… 

Blockchain governance — design components, approaches, suggestions
by Fred Ehrsam
medium.com/@FEhrsam/bl…

Against on-chain governance — refuting (and rebuking) the above post
by Vlad Zamfir
medium.com/@Vlad_Zamfi…

Thoughts on governance and network effects
Luke Duncan
blog.aragon.one/thoughts-on…

Notes on blockchain governance
by Vitalik Buterin
vitalik.ca/general/201…

A self-amending crypto-ledger — Tezos position paper
by Arthur and Kathleen Breitman
www.tezos.com/static/pape…

Privacy and Security

Privacy on the blockchain
by Vitalik Buterin
blog.ethereum.org/2016/01/15/…

Securing smart contracts (series) — 6 Solidity vulnerabilities and how to avoid them
from Loom
medium.com/loom-networ…
medium.com/loom-networ…

Ethereum smart contract best practices
by ConsenSys Diligence
consensys.github.io/smart-contr…

Town Crier: an authenticated data feed for smart contracts
by Fan Zhang, Ethan Cecchetti, Kyle Croman, Ari Juels, and Elaine Shi
eprint.iacr.org/2016/168.pd…

Devcon3 panel on formal verification
Phil Daian, Everett Hildenbrandt, Yoichi Hirai, and Loi Luu, moderated by Reto Trinkler
youtu.be/DrDIcirrhWM

What are zk-SNARKs?
by Jay Graber
z.cash/technology/…

Zk-SNARKs: under the hood (series) — assumes basic knowledge of zk-SNARKs (zero-knowledge succinct non-interactive argument of knowledge)
by Vitalik Buterin
medium.com/@VitalikBut…

STARKs, part I: proofs with polynomials — general-purpose technology that can be used for all sorts of use cases ranging from verifiable computation to privacy-preserving cryptocurrency
by Vitalik Buterin
vitalik.ca/general/201…

Scalable, transparent, and post-quantum secure computational integrity — on transparent zk-SNARKs (zk-STARKs) as a solution to the tension between personal privacy and institutional integrity
by Eli Ben-Sasson, Iddo Bentov, Yinon Horesh, and Michael Riabzev
eprint.iacr.org/2018/046.pd…

Succinct non-interactive zero knowledge for a von Neumann Architecture
by Eli Ben-Sasson, Alessandro Chiesa, Eran Tromer, and Madars Virza
eprint.iacr.org/2013/879.pd…

Scaling

Blockchains don’t scale — not today, at least… but there’s hope
by Preethi Kasireddy
hackernoon.com/blockchains…

Models for scaling trustless computation
by Kyle Samani
multicoin.capital/2018/02/23/…

Platform currencies may soon be obsolete — here is my claim: within 5 years the biggest cryptocurrency by market cap will be an application token
by Aleksandr Bulkin
blog.coinfund.io/platform-cu…

The importance of layer two — an HTTP of bitcoin and blockchains
by Elizabeth Stark
youtu.be/3PcR4HWJnkY

What is the Lightning Network and how can it help bitcoin scale?
by Elizabeth Stark
coincenter.org/entry/what-…

Making sense of Ethereum’s Layer 2 scaling solutions: state channels, Plasma, and Truebit
by Josh Stark
medium.com/l4-media/ma…

Scaling Tezos — scaling with recursive SNARKs (succinct non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs of knowledge)
by Arthur Breitman
hackernoon.com/scaling-tez…

Ethereum Foundation research initiatives — primary topics in both pure and applied research
by Ethereum Foundation
notes.eth.sg/CwIwZgbAjAD…

Ethereum scalability research and development subsidy programs
by Vitalik Buterin
blog.ethereum.org/2018/01/02/…

A beginner’s guide to Ethermint
by Tendermint
blog.cosmos.network/a-beginners…

Construction of a plasma chain 0x1
by David Knott
blog.omisego.network/constructio…

Accounts, transactions, gas, and block gas limits in Ethereum
by Hudson Jameson
hudsonjameson.com/2017-06-27-…

Interplanetary linked computing: separating Merkle Computing from blockchain computational courts
by Simon de la Rouviere
media.consensys.net/interplanet…

Ethereum sharding: overview and finality
by Hsiao-Wei Wang
medium.com/@icebearhww…

Consensus

Consensus Compare: Casper vs. Tendermint; Tendermint BFT vs. EOS dPoS
from Tendermint
https://blog.cosmos.network/consensus-compare-casper-vs-tendermint-6df154ad56ae
blog.cosmos.network/consensus-c…

Ethereum Casper 101
by Jon Choi
medium.com/@jonchoi/et…

The history of Casper  (series)
by Vlad Zamfir
medium.com/@Vlad_Zamfi…

Decentralization in bitcoin and ethereum
by Adem Efe Gencer, Soumya Basu, Ittay Eyal, Robbert van Renesse, and Emin Gün Sirer
hackingdistributed.com/2018/01/15/…

Seeking consensus on consensus — DPOS (delegated proof of stake) and the Two Generals’ problem
by Ian Grigg
steemit.com/eos/@iang/s…

A proof of stake design philosophy
by Vitalik Buterin
medium.com/@VitalikBut…

Inflation and participation in stake based token protocols
by Doug Petkanics
medium.com/@petkanics/…

Cryptoeconomics and Investing

Making sense of cryptoeconomics — the term and the concept
by Josh Stark
hackernoon.com/making-sens…

A crash course in mechanism design for cryptoeconomic applications — understanding the basic fundamentals of cryptoeconomics
from BlockChannel
medium.com/blockchanne…

Cryptoasset valuations — a theory and framework for evaluating
by Chris Burniske
medium.com/@cburniske/…

An (institutional) investor’s take on cryptoassets
by John Pfeffer
s3.eu-west-2.amazonaws.com/john-pfeffe…

Comments on the above (tweetstorm) — network effects?; programmability as feature of money
by Kyle Samani
twitter.com/KyleSamani/…

On value, velocity, and monetary theory — a new approach to cryptoasset valuations
by Alex Evans
medium.com/blockchanne…

On medium-of-exchange token valuations
by Vitalik Buterin
vitalik.ca/general/201…

Understanding token velocity
by Kyle Samani
multicoin.capital/2017/12/08/…

A process for evaluating new tokens
by Nick Tomaino
thecontrol.co/our-process…

Token classification framework — a multi-dimensional tool for understanding and classifying crypto tokens
by Thomas Euler
www.untitled-inc.com/the-token-c…

Fat protocols are not an investment thesis
by Jake Brukhman
blog.coinfund.io/fat-protoco…

Skin-in-the-game coins
by Ryan Selkis
medium.com/tbis-weekly…

Fundraising and Token Distribution

Thoughts on tokens
by Balaji Srinivasan
news.earn.com/thoughts-on…

Funding the evolution of blockchains
by Fred Ehrsam
medium.com/@FEhrsam/fu…

The bitcoin model for crowdfunding
by Naval Ravikant
startupboy.com/2014/03/09/…

How to make bonding curves for the economic web — a novel token distribution mechanism for building healthy communities, a technical primer
by Slava Balasanov
hackernoon.com/how-to-make…

Separating the staking token from the fee token — introducing the Photon (the Hard Spoon explained)
by Tendermint
blog.cosmos.network/cosmos-fee-…

Explanation of DAICOs
by Vitalik Buterin
ethresear.ch/t/explanati…

The SAFT Project
saftproject.com/

Regulatory environment and considerations — updates and explainers
from Coin Center
coincenter.org/our-work

Decentralized Exchanges

State of decentralized exchanges, 2018
by Nathan Sexer
media.consensys.net/state-of-de…

Networked liquidity — projects solving the chicken and egg problem
by Radar Relay
medium.com/radarrelay/…

List of decentralized exchanges — of cryptocurrencies and tokens (does not yet include column for degree of decentralization)
github.com/PYMERVAL/de…

Stablecoins

Stablecoins: A holy grail in digital currency
by Nick Tomaino
thecontrol.co/stablecoins…

An overview of stablecoins
by Myles Snider
multicoin.capital/2018/01/17/…

The search for a stable cryptocurrency
by Vitalik Buterin
blog.ethereum.org/2014/11/11/…

Maker for dummies: a plain English explanation of the Dai stablecoin
by Gregory DiPrisco
medium.com/cryptolinks…

Cryptoeconomic Primitives: Curation Markets, Cryptocollectibles, Games

The emergence of cryptoeconomic primitives — definitions and building blocks of a token-based economy
by Jacob Home
medium.com/@jacobscott…

Token lexicon — buzzwords related to curation markets and collectibles
by Billy Rennekamp
medium.com/@billyrenne…

Introducing curation markets — trade popularity of memes and information (with code!)
by Simon de la Rouviere
medium.com/@simondlr/i…

Curation markets (tweetstorm) — summary and implications of
by Fred Ehrsam
twitter.com/FEhrsam/sta…

Early UIs for curation markets (tweetstorm) — categories and some projects using markets to curate human readable information
by Jesse Walden
twitter.com/jessewldn/s…

Token-curated registries — a more formal but less-than-mathematical view of token-curated registries
by Mike Goldin
medium.com/@ilovebagel…

Building ‘Google for the economic web’ on the Ethereum blockchain
by Maciej Olpinski
blog.userfeeds.io/building-go…

Smart media tokens
from Steemit
smt.steem.io/smt-whitepa…

Digital pets that don’t die
by Elaine Ou
elaineou.com/2017/12/03/…

Will cryptocurrencies be the art market’s next big thing?
by Scott Reyburn
www.nytimes.com/2018/01/13/…

Digital collectibles and the weird future of “digibles”
by Josh Stark
hackernoon.com/digital-col…

Cryptocollectibles are XLNT, but nobody knows what’s next
by Matt Condon
medium.com/xlnt-art/cr…

Rare pepe — what happens when you combine a crypto-asset with a meme and a trading card
by Fred Wilson
avc.com/2017/05/rar…

Developer Tutorials, Practical Guides, and Maker Stories

Learn to code Ethereum dapps by building your own game — designed for beginners to Solidity (even if you’ve never coded with Solidity before)
cryptozombies.io/

How to code your own cryptokitties-style game on Ethereum
by James Martin Duffy
medium.com/loom-networ…

Learning Solidity — commit-reveal voting
by Karl Floersch
karl.tech/learning-so…

The hitchhiker’s guide to smart contracts in Ethereum
by Manuel Araoz
blog.zeppelin.solutions/the-hitchhi… 

Introduction to zk-SNARKs with examples — an overview of zk-SNARKs from a practical viewpoint
Christian Lundkvist
media.consensys.net/introductio…

zkSNARKs: driver’s ed — practical beginner’s guide to creating, proving, verifying in contracts
by Joseph Stockermans
github.com/jstoxrocky/…

Epicenter — a trove of interviews with many different blockchain project leads
epicenter.tv/episodes/

The Ceremony — Radiolab podcast featuring story of Zcash
with Morgen Peck, Peter Todd, Peter Van Valkenburgh, Zooko Wilcox; by Molly Webster and Matt Kielty
www.radiolab.org/story/cerem…

Other Resources – Newsletters

Week in Ethereum News — tracking developments in the Ethereum ecosystem
by Evan Van Ness
www.weekinethereum.com/

The Control — on the entrepreneurs, projects and protocols that are putting control of power in the hands of the people
by 1confirmation
www.getrevue.co/profile/con…

Token Economy — tracking new developments in distributed ledger tech
by Stefano Bernardi and Yannick Roux
tokeneconomy.co/

Proof of Work — projects and progress in crypto, also a view from China
by Eric Meltzer
tinyletter.com/proofofwork…

Other Resources – Courses

Cryptocurrency (2018)
by Susan Athey and Kathryn Haun
explorecourses.stanford.edu/search?view…

Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies (2015)
by Arvind Narayan, Joseph Bonneau, Edward Felten, Andrew Miller
piazza.com/princeton/s…

Advanced topics in computer science: Bitcoin and cryptocurrency technologies (2014)
by Arvind Narayan
randomwalker.info/teaching/fa…

A graduate course in applied cryptography (2017)
by Dan Boneh and Victor Shoup
toc.cryptobook.us/

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