阅读 7042

Python3.6实现12306火车票自动抢票

最近在学Python,所以用Python写了这个12306抢票脚本,分享出来,与大家共同交流和学习,有不对的地方,请大家多多指正。话不多说,进入正题:

在进入正题之前,我想说明一下,由于12306官网的改版更新,所以脚本作了一点小小的变化,具体修改后的源码,可以到GitHub上面查看……新版脚本源码

这个脚本目前只能刷一趟车的,人数可以是多个,支持选取作为类型等。
实现思路是splinter.browser模拟浏览器登陆和操作,由于12306的验证码不好自动识别,所以,验证码需要用户进行手动识别,并进行登陆操作,之后的事情,就交由脚本来操作就可以了,下面是我测试时候的一些截图:

第一步:如下图,首先输入抢票基本信息


第二步:然后进入登录页,需要手动输入验证码,并点击登陆操作


第三步:登陆后,自动进入到抢票页面,如下图这样的


最后:就是坐等刷票结果就好了,如下图这样,就说是刷票成功了,刷到票后,会进行短信和邮件的通知,请记得及时前往12306进行支付,不然就白抢了。


Python运行环境:python3.6
用到的模块:re、splinter、time、sys、httplib2、urllib、smtplib、email
未安装的模块,请使用pip instatll进行安装,例如:pip install splinter
如下代码是这个脚本所有用到的模块引入:

import re
from splinter.browser import Browser
from time import sleep
import sys
import httplib2
from urllib import parse
import smtplib
from email.mime.text import MIMEText
复制代码

刷票前信息准备,我主要说一下始发站和目的地的cookie值获取,因为输入城市的时候,需要通过cookie值,cookie值可以通过12306官网,然后在F12(相信所有的coder都知道这个吧)的network里面的查询请求cookie中可以看到,在请求的header里面可以找到,_jc_save_fromStation值是出发站的cookie,_jc_save_toStation的值是目的地的cookie,然后加入到代码里的城市的cookie字典city_list里即可,键是城市的首字母,值是cookie值的形式。

抢票,肯定需要先登录,我这里模拟的登录操作,会自动填充12306的账号名和密码,当然,你也可以在打开的浏览器中修改账号和密码,实现的关键代码如下:

def do_login(self):
    """登录功能实现,手动识别验证码进行登录"""
    self.driver.visit(self.login_url)
    sleep(1)
    self.driver.fill('loginUserDTO.user_name', self.user_name)
    self.driver.fill('userDTO.password', self.password)
    print('请输入验证码……')
    while True:
        if self.driver.url != self.init_my_url:
            sleep(1)
        else:
            break
复制代码

登录之后,就是控制刷票的各种操作处理了,这里,我就不贴代码了,因为代码比较多,别担心,在最后,我会贴出完整的代码的。

当刷票成功后,我会进行短信和邮件的双重通知,当然,这里短信通知的平台,就看你用那个具体来修改代码了,我用的是互亿无线的体验版的免费短信通知接口;发送邮件模块我用的是smtplib,发送邮件服务器用的是163邮箱,如果用163邮箱的话,你还没有设置客户端授权密码,记得先设置客户端授权密码就好了,挺方便的。以下是主要实现代码:

def send_sms(self, mobile, sms_info):
    """发送手机通知短信,用的是-互亿无线-的测试短信"""
    host = "106.ihuyi.com"
    sms_send_uri = "/webservice/sms.php?method=Submit"
    account = "C59782899"
    pass_word = "19d4d9c0796532c7328e8b82e2812655"
    params = parse.urlencode(
        {'account': account, 'password': pass_word, 'content': sms_info, 'mobile': mobile, 'format': 'json'}
    )
    headers = {"Content-type": "application/x-www-form-urlencoded", "Accept": "text/plain"}
    conn = httplib2.HTTPConnectionWithTimeout(host, port=80, timeout=30)
    conn.request("POST", sms_send_uri, params, headers)
    response = conn.getresponse()
    response_str = response.read()
    conn.close()
    return response_str

def send_mail(self, receiver_address, content):
    """发送邮件通知"""
    # 连接邮箱服务器信息
    host = 'smtp.163.com'
    port = 25
    sender = 'xxxxxx@163.com'  # 你的发件邮箱号码
    pwd = '******'  # 不是登陆密码,是客户端授权密码
    # 发件信息
    receiver = receiver_address
    body = '<h2>温馨提醒:</h2><p>' + content + '</p>'
    msg = MIMEText(body, 'html', _charset="utf-8")
    msg['subject'] = '抢票成功通知!'
    msg['from'] = sender
    msg['to'] = receiver
    s = smtplib.SMTP(host, port)
    # 开始登陆邮箱,并发送邮件
    s.login(sender, pwd)
    s.sendmail(sender, receiver, msg.as_string())
复制代码

说了那么多,感觉都是说了好多废话啊,哈哈,不好意思,耽误大家时间来看我瞎扯了,我贴上大家最关心的源码,请接码,大家在尝试运行过程中,有任何问题,可以给我留言或者私信我,我看到都会及时回复大家的:

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-

"""
通过splinter刷12306火车票
可以自动填充账号密码,同时,在登录时,也可以修改账号密码
然后手动识别验证码,并登陆,接下来的事情,交由脚本来做了,静静的等待抢票结果就好(刷票过程中,浏览器不可关闭)
author: cuizy
time: 2018-05-30
"""

import re
from splinter.browser import Browser
from time import sleep
import sys
import httplib2
from urllib import parse
import smtplib
from email.mime.text import MIMEText


class BrushTicket(object):
    """买票类及实现方法"""

    def __init__(self, user_name, password, passengers, from_time, from_station, to_station, number, seat_type, receiver_mobile, receiver_email):
        """定义实例属性,初始化"""
        # 1206账号密码
        self.user_name = user_name
        self.password = password
        # 乘客姓名
        self.passengers = passengers
        # 起始站和终点站
        self.from_station = from_station
        self.to_station = to_station
        # 乘车日期
        self.from_time = from_time
        # 车次编号
        self.number = number.capitalize()
        # 座位类型所在td位置
        if seat_type == '商务座特等座':
            seat_type_index = 1
            seat_type_value = 9
        elif seat_type == '一等座':
            seat_type_index = 2
            seat_type_value = 'M'
        elif seat_type == '二等座':
            seat_type_index = 3
            seat_type_value = 0
        elif seat_type == '高级软卧':
            seat_type_index = 4
            seat_type_value = 6
        elif seat_type == '软卧':
            seat_type_index = 5
            seat_type_value = 4
        elif seat_type == '动卧':
            seat_type_index = 6
            seat_type_value = 'F'
        elif seat_type == '硬卧':
            seat_type_index = 7
            seat_type_value = 3
        elif seat_type == '软座':
            seat_type_index = 8
            seat_type_value = 2
        elif seat_type == '硬座':
            seat_type_index = 9
            seat_type_value = 1
        elif seat_type == '无座':
            seat_type_index = 10
            seat_type_value = 1
        elif seat_type == '其他':
            seat_type_index = 11
            seat_type_value = 1
        else:
            seat_type_index = 7
            seat_type_value = 3
        self.seat_type_index = seat_type_index
        self.seat_type_value = seat_type_value
        # 通知信息
        self.receiver_mobile = receiver_mobile
        self.receiver_email = receiver_email
        # 主要页面网址
        self.login_url = 'https://kyfw.12306.cn/otn/login/init'
        self.init_my_url = 'https://kyfw.12306.cn/otn/index/initMy12306'
        self.ticket_url = 'https://kyfw.12306.cn/otn/leftTicket/init'
        # 浏览器驱动信息,驱动下载页:https://sites.google.com/a/chromium.org/chromedriver/downloads
        self.driver_name = 'chrome'
        self.executable_path = 'C:\\Users\cuizy\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python36\Scripts\chromedriver.exe'

    def do_login(self):
        """登录功能实现,手动识别验证码进行登录"""
        self.driver.visit(self.login_url)
        sleep(1)
        self.driver.fill('loginUserDTO.user_name', self.user_name)
        self.driver.fill('userDTO.password', self.password)
        print('请输入验证码……')
        while True:
            if self.driver.url != self.init_my_url:
                sleep(1)
            else:
                break

    def start_brush(self):
        """买票功能实现"""
        self.driver = Browser(driver_name=self.driver_name, executable_path=self.executable_path)
        # 浏览器窗口的大小
        self.driver.driver.set_window_size(900, 700)
        self.do_login()
        self.driver.visit(self.ticket_url)
        try:
            print('开始刷票……')
            # 加载车票查询信息
            self.driver.cookies.add({"_jc_save_fromStation": self.from_station})
            self.driver.cookies.add({"_jc_save_toStation": self.to_station})
            self.driver.cookies.add({"_jc_save_fromDate": self.from_time})
            self.driver.reload()
            count = 0
            while self.driver.url.split('?')[0] == self.ticket_url:
                self.driver.find_by_text('查询').click()
                sleep(1)
                count += 1
                print('第%d次点击查询……' % count)
                try:
                    car_no_location = self.driver.find_by_id("queryLeftTable")[0].find_by_text(self.number)[1]
                    current_tr = car_no_location.find_by_xpath("./../../../../..")
                    if current_tr.find_by_tag('td')[self.seat_type_index].text == '--':
                        print('无此座位类型出售,已结束当前刷票,请重新开启!')
                        sys.exit(1)
                    elif current_tr.find_by_tag('td')[self.seat_type_index].text == '无':
                        print('无票,继续尝试……')
                    else:
                        # 有票,尝试预订
                        print('刷到票了(余票数:' + str(current_tr.find_by_tag('td')[self.seat_type_index].text) + '),开始尝试预订……')
                        current_tr.find_by_css('td.no-br>a')[0].click()
                        sleep(1)
                        key_value = 1
                        for p in self.passengers:
                            # 选择用户
                            print('开始选择用户……')
                            self.driver.find_by_text(p).last.click()
                            # 选择座位类型
                            print('开始选择席别……')
                            if self.seat_type_value != 0:
                                seat_select = self.driver.find_by_id("seatType_" + str(key_value))[0]
                                seat_select.find_by_xpath("//option[@value='" + str(self.seat_type_value) + "']")[0].click()
                            key_value += 1
                            sleep(0.5)
                            if p[-1] == ')':
                                self.driver.find_by_id('dialog_xsertcj_ok').click()
                        print('正在提交订单……')
                        self.driver.find_by_id('submitOrder_id').click()
                        sleep(2)
                        # 查看放回结果是否正常
                        submit_false_info = self.driver.find_by_id('orderResultInfo_id')[0].text
                        if submit_false_info != '':
                            print(submit_false_info)
                            self.driver.find_by_id('qr_closeTranforDialog_id').click()
                            sleep(0.2)
                            self.driver.find_by_id('preStep_id').click()
                            sleep(0.3)
                            continue
                        print('正在确认订单……')
                        self.driver.find_by_id('qr_submit_id').click()
                        print('预订成功,请及时前往支付……')
                        # 发送通知信息
                        self.send_mail(self.receiver_email, '恭喜您,抢到票了,请及时前往12306支付订单!')
                        self.send_sms(self.receiver_mobile, '您的验证码是:8888。请不要把验证码泄露给其他人。')
                except Exception as error_info:
                    print(error_info)
        except Exception as error_info:
            print(error_info)

    def send_sms(self, mobile, sms_info):
        """发送手机通知短信,用的是-互亿无线-的测试短信"""
        host = "106.ihuyi.com"
        sms_send_uri = "/webservice/sms.php?method=Submit"
        account = "C59782899"
        pass_word = "19d4d9c0796532c7328e8b82e2812655"
        params = parse.urlencode(
            {'account': account, 'password': pass_word, 'content': sms_info, 'mobile': mobile, 'format': 'json'}
        )
        headers = {"Content-type": "application/x-www-form-urlencoded", "Accept": "text/plain"}
        conn = httplib2.HTTPConnectionWithTimeout(host, port=80, timeout=30)
        conn.request("POST", sms_send_uri, params, headers)
        response = conn.getresponse()
        response_str = response.read()
        conn.close()
        return response_str

    def send_mail(self, receiver_address, content):
        """发送邮件通知"""
        # 连接邮箱服务器信息
        host = 'smtp.163.com'
        port = 25
        sender = '******@163.com'  # 你的发件邮箱号码
        pwd = '******'  # 不是登陆密码,是客户端授权密码
        # 发件信息
        receiver = receiver_address
        body = '<h2>温馨提醒:</h2><p>' + content + '</p>'
        msg = MIMEText(body, 'html', _charset="utf-8")
        msg['subject'] = '抢票成功通知!'
        msg['from'] = sender
        msg['to'] = receiver
        s = smtplib.SMTP(host, port)
        # 开始登陆邮箱,并发送邮件
        s.login(sender, pwd)
        s.sendmail(sender, receiver, msg.as_string())


if __name__ == '__main__':
    # 12306用户名
    user_name = input('请输入12306用户名:')
    while user_name == '':
        user_name = input('12306用户名不能为空,请重新输入:')
    # 12306登陆密码
    password = input('请输入12306登陆密码:')
    while password == '':
        password = input('12306登陆密码不能为空,请重新输入:')
    # 乘客姓名
    passengers_input = input('请输入乘车人姓名,多人用英文逗号“,”连接,(例如单人“张三”或者多人“张三,李四”):')
    passengers = passengers_input.split(",")
    while passengers_input == '' or len(passengers) > 4:
        print('乘车人最少1位,最多4位!')
        passengers_input = input('请重新输入乘车人姓名,多人用英文逗号“,”连接,(例如单人“张三”或者多人“张三,李四”):')
        passengers = passengers_input.split(",")
    # 乘车日期
    from_time = input('请输入乘车日期(例如“2018-08-08”):')
    date_pattern = re.compile(r'^\d{4}-\d{2}-\d{2}$')
    while from_time == '' or re.findall(date_pattern, from_time) == []:
        from_time = input('乘车日期不能为空或者时间格式不正确,请重新输入:')
    # 城市cookie字典
    city_list = {
        'bj': '%u5317%u4EAC%2CBJP',  # 北京
        'hd': '%u5929%u6D25%2CTJP',  # 邯郸
        'nn': '%u5357%u5B81%2CNNZ',  # 南宁
        'wh': '%u6B66%u6C49%2CWHN',  # 武汉
        'cs': '%u957F%u6C99%2CCSQ',  # 长沙
        'ty': '%u592A%u539F%2CTYV',  # 太原
        'yc': '%u8FD0%u57CE%2CYNV',  # 运城
        'gzn': '%u5E7F%u5DDE%u5357%2CIZQ',  # 广州南
        'wzn': '%u68A7%u5DDE%u5357%2CWBZ',  # 梧州南
    }
    # 出发站
    from_input = input('请输入出发站,只需要输入首字母就行(例如北京“bj”):')
    while from_input not in city_list.keys():
        from_input = input('出发站不能为空或不支持当前出发站(如有需要,请联系管理员!),请重新输入:')
    from_station = city_list[from_input]
    # 终点站
    to_input = input('请输入终点站,只需要输入首字母就行(例如北京“bj”):')
    while to_input not in city_list.keys():
        to_input = input('终点站不能为空或不支持当前终点站(如有需要,请联系管理员!),请重新输入:')
    to_station = city_list[to_input]
    # 车次编号
    number = input('请输入车次号(例如“G110”):')
    while number == '':
        number = input('车次号不能为空,请重新输入:')
    # 座位类型
    seat_type = input('请输入座位类型(例如“软卧”):')
    while seat_type == '':
        seat_type = input('座位类型不能为空,请重新输入:')
    # 抢票成功,通知该手机号码
    receiver_mobile = input('请预留一个手机号码,方便抢到票后进行通知(例如:18888888888):')
    mobile_pattern = re.compile(r'^1{1}\d{10}$')
    while receiver_mobile == '' or re.findall(mobile_pattern, receiver_mobile) == []:
        receiver_mobile = input('预留手机号码不能为空或者格式不正确,请重新输入:')
    receiver_email = input('请预留一个邮箱,方便抢到票后进行通知(例如:test@163.com):')
    while receiver_email == '':
        receiver_email = input('预留邮箱不能为空,请重新输入:')
    # 开始抢票
    ticket = BrushTicket(user_name, password, passengers, from_time, from_station, to_station, number, seat_type, receiver_mobile, receiver_email)
    ticket.start_brush()

复制代码


关注下面的标签,发现更多相似文章
评论