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ansible自动化运维详细教程及playbook详解

前言

当下有许多的运维自动化工具( 配置管理 ),例如:Ansible、SaltStack、Puppet、Fabric 等。

Ansible 一种集成 IT 系统的配置管理、应用部署、执行特定任务的开源平台,是 AnsibleWorks 公司名下的项目,该公司由 Cobbler 及 Func 的作者于 2012 年创建成立。

Ansible 基于 Python 语言实现,由 Paramiko 和 PyYAML 两个关键模块构建。

Ansible 特点:

  • 部署简单,只需在主控端部署 Ansible 环境,被控端无需做任何操作。
  • 默认使用 SSH(Secure Shell)协议对设备进行管理。
  • 主从集中化管理。
  • 配置简单、功能强大、扩展性强。
  • 支持 API 及自定义模块,可通过 Python 轻松扩展。
  • 通过 Playbooks 来定制强大的配置、状态管理。
  • 对云计算平台、大数据都有很好的支持。
  • 提供一个功能强大、操作性强的 Web 管理界面和 REST API 接口 ---- AWX 平台。

Ansible 与 SaltStack:

  • 最大的区别是 Ansible 无需在被监控主机部署任何客户端代理,默认通过 SSH 通道进行远程命令执行或下发配置。
  • 相同点是都具备功能强大、灵活的系统管理、状态配置,都使用 YAML 格式来描述配置,两者都提供丰富的模板及 API,对云计算平台、大数据都有很好的支持。

1 安装ansible

yum -y install ansible
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2 配置ansible

ls /etc/ansible
ansible.cfg hosts roles

# ansible.cfg 是 Ansible 工具的配置文件;hosts 用来配置被管理的机器;roles 是一个目录,playbook 将使用它
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2.1 SSH秘钥认证

ssh-keygen -t rsa
ssh-copy-id root@agent_host_ip
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2.2 添加被管理主机

vim /etc/ansible/hosts

[Client]
angent_host_ip_1
angent_host_ip_2
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2.3 测试ansible

shell > ansible Client -m ping     # 操作 Client 组 ( all 为操作 hosts 文件中所有主机 ),-m 指定执行 ping 模块,下面是返回结果
192.168.12.129 | SUCCESS => {
"changed": false, 
"ping": "pong"
}

# -i          指定 hosts 文件位置
# -u username 指定 SSH 连接的用户名
# -k          指定远程用户密码
# -f          指定并发数
# -s          如需要 root 权限执行时使用 ( 连接用户不是 root 时 )
# -K          -s 时,-K 输入 root 密码
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3 hosts主机文件

shell > vim /etc/ansible/hosts

www.abc.com     # 定义域名

192.168.1.100   # 定义 IP

192.168.1.150:37268   # 指定端口号

[WebServer]           # 定义分组

192.168.1.10
192.168.1.20
192.168.1.30

[DBServer]            # 定义多个分组

192.168.1.50
192.168.1.60

Monitor ansible_ssh_port=12378 ansible_ssh_host=192.168.1.200   # 定义别名

# ansible_ssh_host 连接目标主机的地址

# ansible_ssh_port 连接目标主机的端口,默认 22 时无需指定

# ansible_ssh_user 连接目标主机默认用户

# ansible_ssh_pass 连接目标主机默认用户密码

# ansible_ssh_connection 目标主机连接类型,可以是 local 、ssh 或 paramiko

# ansible_ssh_private_key_file 连接目标主机的 ssh 私钥

# ansible_*_interpreter 指定采用非 Python 的其他脚本语言,如 Ruby 、Perl 或其他类似 ansible_python_interpreter 解释器

[webservers]         # 主机名支持正则描述

www[01:50].example.com

[dbservers]

db-[a:f].example.com
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4 ansible常用模块

shell > ansible-doc -l    # 列出 Ansible 支持的模块

shell > ansible-doc ping  # 查看该模块帮助信息
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4.1 远程命令模块(command / script / shell)

4.1.1 command

command 作为 Ansible 的默认模块,可以运行远程权限范围所有的 shell 命令,不支持管道符。

shell > ansible Client -m command -a "free -m"               # 查看 Client 分组主机内存使用情况
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4.1.2 script

script 的功能是在远程主机执行主控端存储的 shell 脚本文件,相当于 scp + shell 组合。

shell > ansible Client -m script -a "/home/test.sh 12 34"    # 远程执行本地脚本
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4.1.3 shell

shell模块基本和command相同,但是shell支持管道符

shell > ansible Client -m shell -a "/home/test.sh"           # 执行远程脚本
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4.2 copy模块

实现主控端向目标主机拷贝文件,类似于 scp 功能

shell > ansible Client -m copy -a "src=/home/test.sh dest=/tmp/ owner=root group=root mode=0755"   # 向 Client 组中主机拷贝 test.sh 到 /tmp 下,属主、组为 root ,权限为 0755
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4.3 stat模块

获取远程文件状态信息,atime/ctime/mtime/md5/uid/gid 等信息

shell > ansible Client -m stat -a "path=/etc/syctl.conf"
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4.4 get_url

实现在远程主机下载指定 URL 到本地,支持 sha256sum 文件校验

shell > ansible Client -m get_url -a "url=http://www.baidu.com dest=/tmp/index.html mode=0440 force=yes"
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4.5 yum

软件包管理

shell > ansible Client -m yum -a "name=curl state=latest"
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4.6 corn

远程主机 crontab 配置

shell > ansible Client -m cron -a "name='check dirs' hour='5,2' job='ls -alh > /dev/null'"

效果:
* 5,2 * * * ls -alh > /dev/null
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4.7 mount

远程主机分区挂载

shell > ansible Client -m mount -a "name=/mnt/data src=/dev/sd0 fstype=ext4 opts=ro state=present"
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4.8 service

远程主机系统服务管理

shell > ansible Client -m service -a "name=nginx state=stoped"
shell > ansible Client -m service -a "name=nginx state=restarted"
shell > ansible Client -m service -a "name=nginx state=reloaded"
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4.9 user

远程主机用户管理

shell > ansible Client -m user -a "name=wang comment='user wang'"

shell > ansible Client -m user -a "name=wang state=absent remove=yes"    # 添加删除用户
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5 ansible-playbook 详解

5.1 YAML语法

  1. YAML的语法和其他高阶语言类似并且可以简单表达清单、散列表、标量等数据结构。(列表用横杆表示,键值对用冒号分割,键值对里又可以嵌套另外的键值对)
  2. YAML文件扩展名通常为.yaml或者.yml。下面为示例
  3. 一定要对齐,只能使用空格
name: tom
age: 21
gender: male
spourse:
    name: lily
    gender: female
children:
    - name: susan
      age: 2
      gender: feamle
    - name: sunny
      age: 10
      gender: male
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5.2 核心组件

  • tasks:任务
  • variables:变量
  • templates:模板
  • handlers:处理器
  • roles:角色

5.3 playbook简单示例

5.3.1 第一个示例

vim /root/first.yml

- hosts: all
  remote_user: root
  vars: httpd_port=80
  
  tasks:
  - name: install httpd
    yum: name=httpd state=present
  - name: install php
    yum: name=php state=present
  - name: start httpd
    service: name=httpd state=started enabled=true
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hosts 定义单个主机或组,vars定义变量,remote_user定义执行命令的远程用户,tasks定义执行哪些命令,handlers定义调用哪些处理器

vars(变量):

  • 变量命名: 字母数字下划线组成,只能以字母开头

  • 变量种类:

    1. facts(内置变量)

      由远程主机发回的主机属性信息,这些信息被保存在ansible变量当中

      例如:ansible 192.168.238.170 -m setup 来获取远程主机上的属性信息,这些属性信息保存在facts中

    2. 通过命令行传递

      通过命令行传递:ansible-playbook test.yml --extra-vars “host=www user=tom“(如果剧本中已有此处定义的变量则会被覆盖)

    3. 通过roles传递

    4. 主机变量

      在/etc/ansible/hosts中定义

      [web1]
      192.168.1.1 name=haha
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    5. 组变量

      [group_name:vars]
      foo=bar
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hosts :

/etc/abible/hosts 中指定的远程主机,并用指定的属性进行连接

ansible_ssh_port 连接远程主机使用的端口

ansible_ssh_user 连接远程主机使用的用户

ansible_ssh_pass 连接远程主机使用的密码
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cat /etc/ansible/hosts

[web1]
web1.hostname ansible_ssh_port=22 ansible_ssh_user=root ansible_ssh_pass=123
web2.hostname
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5.3.2 第二个示例

vim /root/second.yml

- hosts: web1
  remote_user: root
  vars:
    username: bob
    password: 123
    
  tasks:
  - name: add user
    user: name={{ username }} state=present
    when: ansible_os_family == "Debian"
  - name: set password
    shell: echo {{ password }} |passwd --stdin {{ username }}
  - name: install httpd php
    yum: name={{ item }} state=present
    with_items:
      - httpd
      - php
  - name: add two users
    user: name={{ item }} state=present groups={{ item.groups }}
    with_items:
    - { name: 'user1', groups: 'group1'}
    - { name: 'user2', groups: 'group2'}
      
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  • 在playbook中调用变量的方式为{{ variable }}
  • when语句用来条件测试
  • ansible_os_family 是facts中内置的属性信息 ansible_os_family的信息可以使用ansible all -m setup | grep ansible_os_family 查看
  • 在task中调用内置的item变量;在某task后面使用with_items语句来定义元素列表

5.3.3 第三个示例

vim /root/third.yml

- hosts: web1
  remote_user: root
  vars: 
    httpd_port=80
  
  tasks:
  - name: install httpd
    yum: name=httpd state=present
  - name: install php
    yum: name=php state=present
  - name: copy config file
    copy: src=/root/httpd.conf dest=/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
    notify: restart httpd
  - name: start httpd
    service: name=httpd state=started enabled=true
    
  handlers:
  - name: restart httpd
    service: name=httpd state=restarted
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上面的意思是copy中复制过去的文件跟远程主机上的文件不同,就通过notify调用handlers,即重启httpd服务。

handler是重启服务是最通用的用法

5.3.4 第四个示例

vim /etc/ansible/hosts
[web1]
192.168.1.1 http_port=80
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vim /root/httpd.conf
……
Listen {{ http_port }}
……
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vim /root/fourth.yml

- hosts: web1
  remote_user: root
  vars: 
    httpd_port=80
  
  tasks:
  - name: install httpd
    yum: name=httpd state=present
  - name: copy config file
    template: src=/root/httpd.conf dest=/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
    notify: restart httpd
  - name: start httpd
    service: name=httpd state=started enabled=true
    
  handlers:
  - name: restart httpd
    service: name=httpd state=restarted
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templates:用于生成文本文件(配置文件)

模板文件中可使用jinja2表达式,表达式要定义在{{ }},也可以简单地仅执行变量替换

5.3.5 第五个示例

roles:roles用于实现“代码复用”,roles以特定的层次型格式组织起来的playbook元素(variables, tasks, templates,handlers);可被playbook以role的名字直接进行调用

roles的文件结构:

  • files/:此角色中用到的所有文件均放置于此目录中
  • templates/: Jinja2模板文件存放位置
  • tasks/:任务列表文件;可以有多个,但至少有一个叫做main.yml的文件
  • handlers/:处理器列表文件;可以有多个,但至少有一个叫做main.yml的文件
  • vars/:变量字典文件;可以有多个,但至少有一个叫做main.yml的文件
  • meta/:此角色的特殊设定及依赖关系
mkdir /root/roles
cd /root/roles
mkdir -p web1/{files, templayes, tasks, handlers, vars, meta}
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vim web1/vars/main.yml
user: tom
group: tom
http_port: 8080
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vim web1/tasks/main.yml

- name: install httpd
  yum: name=httpd state=present
- name: copy config file
  template: src=httpd.conf dest=/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
  notify: restart httpd
  tags: conf
- name: start httpd
  service: name=httpd state=started enabled=true
 
这里的template指的是相对路径-->web1/templates
tags可以在运行时指定标签任务
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vim web1/handlers/main.yml

handlers:
- name: restart httpd
  service: name=httpd state=restarted
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vim web1/templates/httpd.conf

……
Listen {{ http_port }}
……
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定义一个调用roles文件

vim /root/web1.yml

- hosts: web1
  remote_user: root
  roles:
    - web1
    - { role:web2, http_port:8080 }
    
hosts:web1 指在/etc/ansible/hosts中定义的组,上面有定义
roles: web1 指的是当前目录下的web1目录,也可通过role传递变量, 也可调用多个role
这样只需更改hosts的主机就可以实现不同主机的代码重用了
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运行

ansible-playbook web1.yml
指定运行任务:
ansible-playbook -t conf web1.yml
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5.4 使用ansible-playbook安装zabbix

5.4.1 定义hosts

shell > vim /etc/ansible/hosts

[mini]

129.139.153.78:16283
155.139.190.94:12573
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5.4.2 定义入口文件install_zabbix_agent.yml

shell > vim /etc/ansible/install_zabbix_agent.yml

---
- hosts: mini
  roles:
  - install_zabbix_agent

## 可以看到将要安装的主机组为 mini 组,角色为 install_zabbix_agent
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5.4.3 定义角色 install_zabbix_agent

shell > tree /etc/ansible/roles/install_zabbix_agent/

├── files
│    └── zabbix-2.4.5.tar.gz
├── tasks
│    └── main.yml
├── templates
│    ├── zabbix_agentd
│    └── zabbix_agentd.conf
└── vars
      └── main.yml

## 建立 files     目录,存放编译安装过的 zabbix_agent 目录的压缩文件,用于拷贝到远程主机
## 建立 tasks     目录,用于编写将要执行的任务
## 建立 templates 目录,用于存放可变的模板文件
## 建立 vars      目录,用于存放变量信息
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5.4.4 建立tasks主文件

shell > cat /etc/ansible/roles/install_zabbix_agent/tasks/main.yml

---
  - name: Install Software
    yum: name={{ item }} state=latest
    with_items:
      - libcurl-devel
  - name: Create Zabbix User
    user: name={{ zabbix_user }} state=present createhome=no shell=/sbin/nologin
  - name: Copy Zabbix.tar.gz
    copy: src=zabbix-{{ zabbix_version }}.tar.gz dest={{ zabbix_dir }}/src/zabbix-{{ zabbix_version }}.tar.gz owner=root group=root
  - name: Uncompression Zabbix.tar.gz
    shell: tar zxf {{ zabbix_dir }}/src/zabbix-{{ zabbix_version }}.tar.gz -C {{ zabbix_dir }}/
  - name: Copy Zabbix Start Script
    template: src=zabbix_agentd dest=/etc/init.d/zabbix_agentd owner=root group=root mode=0755
  - name: Copy Zabbix Config File
    template: src=zabbix_agentd.conf dest={{ zabbix_dir }}/zabbix/etc/zabbix_agentd.conf owner={{ zabbix_user }} group={{ zabbix_user }} mode=0644
  - name: Modify Zabbix Dir Permisson
    file: path={{ zabbix_dir }}/zabbix owner={{ zabbix_user }} group={{ zabbix_user }} mode=0755 recurse=yes
  - name: Start Zabbix Service
    shell: /etc/init.d/zabbix_agentd start
  - name: Add Boot Start Zabbix Service
    shell: chkconfig --level 35 zabbix_agentd on
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5.4.5 建立主变量文件

shell > cat /etc/ansible/roles/install_zabbix_agent/vars/main.yml

zabbix_dir: /usr/local
zabbix_version: 2.4.5
zabbix_user: zabbix
zabbix_port: 10050
zabbix_server_ip: 131.142.101.120
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5.4.6 建立模板文件

shell > cat /etc/ansible/roles/install_zabbix_agent/templates/zabbix_agentd

#!/bin/bash
#
# chkconfig: - 90 10
# description:  Starts and stops Zabbix Agent using chkconfig
#                               Tested on Fedora Core 2 - 5
#                               Should work on all Fedora Core versions
#
# @name:        zabbix_agentd
# @author:      Alexander Hagenah <hagenah@topconcepts.com>
# @created:     18.04.2006
#
# Modified for Zabbix 2.0.0
# May 2012, Zabbix SIA
#
# Source function library.
. /etc/init.d/functions

# Variables
# Edit these to match your system settings

        # Zabbix-Directory
        BASEDIR={{ zabbix_dir }}/zabbix

        # Binary File
        BINARY_NAME=zabbix_agentd

        # Full Binary File Call
        FULLPATH=$BASEDIR/sbin/$BINARY_NAME

        # PID file
        PIDFILE=/tmp/$BINARY_NAME.pid

        # Establish args
        ERROR=0
        STOPPING=0

#
# No need to edit the things below
#

# application checking status
if [ -f $PIDFILE  ] && [ -s $PIDFILE ]
        then
        PID=`cat $PIDFILE`

        if [ "x$PID" != "x" ] && kill -0 $PID 2>/dev/null && [ $BINARY_NAME == `ps -e | grep $PID | awk '{print $4}'` ]
        then
                STATUS="$BINARY_NAME (pid `pidof $APP`) running.."
                RUNNING=1
        else
                rm -f $PIDFILE
                STATUS="$BINARY_NAME (pid file existed ($PID) and now removed) not running.."
                RUNNING=0
        fi
else
        if [ `ps -e | grep $BINARY_NAME | head -1 | awk '{ print $1 }'` ]
                then
                STATUS="$BINARY_NAME (pid `pidof $APP`, but no pid file) running.."
        else
                STATUS="$BINARY_NAME (no pid file) not running"
        fi
        RUNNING=0
fi

# functions
start() {
        if [ $RUNNING -eq 1 ]
                then
                echo "$0 $ARG: $BINARY_NAME (pid $PID) already running"
        else
                action $"Starting $BINARY_NAME: " $FULLPATH
                touch /var/lock/subsys/$BINARY_NAME
        fi
}

stop() {
        echo -n $"Shutting down $BINARY_NAME: "
        killproc $BINARY_NAME
        RETVAL=$?
        echo
        [ $RETVAL -eq 0 ] && rm -f /var/lock/subsys/$BINARY_NAME
        RUNNING=0
}


# logic
case "$1" in
        start)
                start
                ;;
        stop)
                stop
                ;;
        status)
                status $BINARY_NAME
                ;;
        restart)
                stop
                sleep 10
                start
                ;;
        help|*)
                echo $"Usage: $0 {start|stop|status|restart|help}"
                cat <<EOF

                        start           - start $BINARY_NAME
                        stop            - stop $BINARY_NAME
                        status          - show current status of $BINARY_NAME
                        restart         - restart $BINARY_NAME if running by sending a SIGHUP or start if not running
                        help            - this screen

EOF
        exit 1
        ;;
esac

exit 0
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shell > cat /etc/ansible/roles/install_zabbix_agent/templates/zabbix_agentd.conf

# This is a config file for the Zabbix agent daemon (Unix)
# To get more information about Zabbix, visit http://www.zabbix.com

############ GENERAL PARAMETERS #################

### Option: PidFile
#       Name of PID file.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Default:
# PidFile=/tmp/zabbix_agentd.pid

### Option: LogFile
#       Name of log file.
#       If not set, syslog is used.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Default:
# LogFile=

LogFile=/tmp/zabbix_agentd.log

### Option: LogFileSize
#       Maximum size of log file in MB.
#       0 - disable automatic log rotation.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Range: 0-1024
# Default:
# LogFileSize=1

### Option: DebugLevel
#       Specifies debug level
#       0 - basic information about starting and stopping of Zabbix processes
#       1 - critical information
#       2 - error information
#       3 - warnings
#       4 - for debugging (produces lots of information)
#
# Mandatory: no
# Range: 0-4
# Default:
# DebugLevel=3

### Option: SourceIP
#       Source IP address for outgoing connections.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Default:
# SourceIP=

### Option: EnableRemoteCommands
#       Whether remote commands from Zabbix server are allowed.
#       0 - not allowed
#       1 - allowed
#
# Mandatory: no
# Default:
# EnableRemoteCommands=0

### Option: LogRemoteCommands
#       Enable logging of executed shell commands as warnings.
#       0 - disabled
#       1 - enabled
#
# Mandatory: no
# Default:
# LogRemoteCommands=0

##### Passive checks related

### Option: Server
#       List of comma delimited IP addresses (or hostnames) of Zabbix servers.
#       Incoming connections will be accepted only from the hosts listed here.
#       If IPv6 support is enabled then '127.0.0.1', '::127.0.0.1', '::ffff:127.0.0.1' are treated equally.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Default:
# Server=

Server={{ zabbix_server_ip }}

### Option: ListenPort
#       Agent will listen on this port for connections from the server.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Range: 1024-32767
# Default:
# ListenPort=10050
ListenPort={{ zabbix_port }}

### Option: ListenIP
#       List of comma delimited IP addresses that the agent should listen on.
#       First IP address is sent to Zabbix server if connecting to it to retrieve list of active checks.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Default:
# ListenIP=0.0.0.0

### Option: StartAgents
#       Number of pre-forked instances of zabbix_agentd that process passive checks.
#       If set to 0, disables passive checks and the agent will not listen on any TCP port.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Range: 0-100
# Default:
# StartAgents=3

##### Active checks related

### Option: ServerActive
#       List of comma delimited IP:port (or hostname:port) pairs of Zabbix servers for active checks.
#       If port is not specified, default port is used.
#       IPv6 addresses must be enclosed in square brackets if port for that host is specified.
#       If port is not specified, square brackets for IPv6 addresses are optional.
#       If this parameter is not specified, active checks are disabled.
#       Example: ServerActive=127.0.0.1:20051,zabbix.domain,[::1]:30051,::1,[12fc::1]
#
# Mandatory: no
# Default:
# ServerActive=

#ServerActive=127.0.0.1:10051

### Option: Hostname
#       Unique, case sensitive hostname.
#       Required for active checks and must match hostname as configured on the server.
#       Value is acquired from HostnameItem if undefined.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Default:
# Hostname=

Hostname={{ ansible_all_ipv4_addresses[1] }}

### Option: HostnameItem
#       Item used for generating Hostname if it is undefined. Ignored if Hostname is defined.
#       Does not support UserParameters or aliases.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Default:
# HostnameItem=system.hostname

### Option: HostMetadata
#       Optional parameter that defines host metadata.
#       Host metadata is used at host auto-registration process.
#       An agent will issue an error and not start if the value is over limit of 255 characters.
#       If not defined, value will be acquired from HostMetadataItem.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Range: 0-255 characters
# Default:
# HostMetadata=

### Option: HostMetadataItem
#       Optional parameter that defines an item used for getting host metadata.
#       Host metadata is used at host auto-registration process.
#       During an auto-registration request an agent will log a warning message if
#       the value returned by specified item is over limit of 255 characters.
#       This option is only used when HostMetadata is not defined.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Default:
# HostMetadataItem=

### Option: RefreshActiveChecks
#       How often list of active checks is refreshed, in seconds.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Range: 60-3600
# Default:
# RefreshActiveChecks=120

### Option: BufferSend
#       Do not keep data longer than N seconds in buffer.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Range: 1-3600
# Default:
# BufferSend=5

### Option: BufferSize
#       Maximum number of values in a memory buffer. The agent will send
#       all collected data to Zabbix Server or Proxy if the buffer is full.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Range: 2-65535
# Default:
# BufferSize=100

### Option: MaxLinesPerSecond
#       Maximum number of new lines the agent will send per second to Zabbix Server
#       or Proxy processing 'log' and 'logrt' active checks.
#       The provided value will be overridden by the parameter 'maxlines',
#       provided in 'log' or 'logrt' item keys.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Range: 1-1000
# Default:
# MaxLinesPerSecond=100

############ ADVANCED PARAMETERS #################

### Option: Alias
#       Sets an alias for an item key. It can be used to substitute long and complex item key with a smaller and simpler one.
#       Multiple Alias parameters may be present. Multiple parameters with the same Alias key are not allowed.
#       Different Alias keys may reference the same item key.
#       For example, to retrieve the ID of user 'zabbix':
#       Alias=zabbix.userid:vfs.file.regexp[/etc/passwd,^zabbix:.:([0-9]+),,,,\1]
#       Now shorthand key zabbix.userid may be used to retrieve data.
#       Aliases can be used in HostMetadataItem but not in HostnameItem parameters.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Range:
# Default:

### Option: Timeout
#       Spend no more than Timeout seconds on processing
#
# Mandatory: no
# Range: 1-30
# Default:
Timeout=20

### Option: AllowRoot
#       Allow the agent to run as 'root'. If disabled and the agent is started by 'root', the agent
#       will try to switch to the user specified by the User configuration option instead.
#       Has no effect if started under a regular user.
#       0 - do not allow
#       1 - allow
#
# Mandatory: no
# Default:
# AllowRoot=0

### Option: User
#       Drop privileges to a specific, existing user on the system.
#       Only has effect if run as 'root' and AllowRoot is disabled.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Default:
# User=zabbix

### Option: Include
#       You may include individual files or all files in a directory in the configuration file.
#       Installing Zabbix will create include directory in /usr/local/etc, unless modified during the compile time.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Default:
# Include=

# Include=/usr/local/etc/zabbix_agentd.userparams.conf
# Include=/usr/local/etc/zabbix_agentd.conf.d/
# Include=/usr/local/etc/zabbix_agentd.conf.d/*.conf

####### USER-DEFINED MONITORED PARAMETERS #######

### Option: UnsafeUserParameters
#       Allow all characters to be passed in arguments to user-defined parameters.
#       0 - do not allow
#       1 - allow
#
# Mandatory: no
# Range: 0-1
# Default:
UnsafeUserParameters=1

### Option: UserParameter
#       User-defined parameter to monitor. There can be several user-defined parameters.
#       Format: UserParameter=<key>,<shell command>
#       See 'zabbix_agentd' directory for examples.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Default:
# UserParameter=

####### LOADABLE MODULES #######

### Option: LoadModulePath
#       Full path to location of agent modules.
#       Default depends on compilation options.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Default:
# LoadModulePath=${libdir}/modules

### Option: LoadModule
#       Module to load at agent startup. Modules are used to extend functionality of the agent.
#       Format: LoadModule=<module.so>
#       The modules must be located in directory specified by LoadModulePath.
#       It is allowed to include multiple LoadModule parameters.
#
# Mandatory: no
# Default:
# LoadModule=
复制代码

5.4.7 安装

shell > ansible-playbook /etc/ansible/install_zabbix_agent.yml

PLAY [mini] *******************************************************************

GATHERING FACTS ***************************************************************
ok: [129.139.153.78]
ok: [155.139.190.94]

TASK: [install_zabbix_agent | Install Software] *******************************
changed: [155.139.190.94] => (item=libcurl-devel)
changed: [129.139.153.78] => (item=libcurl-devel)

TASK: [install_zabbix_agent | Create Zabbix User] *****************************
changed: [129.139.153.78]
changed: [155.139.190.94]

TASK: [install_zabbix_agent | Copy Zabbix.tar.gz] *****************************
changed: [129.139.153.78]
changed: [155.139.190.94]

TASK: [install_zabbix_agent | Uncompression Zabbix.tar.gz] ********************
changed: [129.139.153.78]
changed: [155.139.190.94]

TASK: [install_zabbix_agent | Copy Zabbix Start Script] ***********************
changed: [155.139.190.94]
changed: [129.139.153.78]

TASK: [install_zabbix_agent | Copy Zabbix Config File] ************************
changed: [129.139.153.78]
changed: [155.139.190.94]

TASK: [install_zabbix_agent | Modify Zabbix Dir Permisson] ********************
changed: [155.139.190.94]
changed: [129.139.153.78]

TASK: [install_zabbix_agent | Start Zabbix Service] ***************************
changed: [129.139.153.78]
changed: [155.139.190.94]

TASK: [install_zabbix_agent | Add Boot Start Zabbix Service] ******************
changed: [129.139.153.78]
changed: [155.139.190.94]

PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
155.139.190.94               : ok=10   changed=9    unreachable=0    failed=0
129.139.153.78               : ok=10   changed=9    unreachable=0    failed=0

## 关注一下,启动脚本跟配置文件中变量的引用。
## 完成安装,可以去客户机检查效果了 !
复制代码

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