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机器学习 — AdaBoost算法(手稿+代码)

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一.Adaboost理论部分

1.1 adaboost运行过程

注释:算法是利用指数函数降低误差,运行过程通过迭代进行。其中函数的算法怎么来的,你不用知道!当然你也可以尝试使用其它的函数代替指数函数,看看效果如何。


1.2 举例说明算法流程

略,花几分钟就可以看懂的例子。见:《统计学习方法》李航大大

统计学习方法


1.3 算法误差界的证明

注释:误差的上界限由Zm约束,然而Zm又是由Gm(xi)约束,所以选择适当的Gm(xi)可以加快误差的减小。

统计学习方法


二.代码实现

注释:这里参考大神博客http://blog.csdn.net/guyuealian/article/details/70995333,举例子很详细。


2.1程序流程图


2.2基本程序实现

注释:真是倒霉玩意,本来代码全部注释好了,突然Ubuntu奔溃了,全部程序就GG了。。。下面的代码就是官网的代码,部分补上注释。现在使用Deepin桌面版了,其它方面都比Ubuntu好,但是有点点卡。


from numpy import *

def loadDataSet(fileName):      #general function to parse tab -delimited floats
    numFeat = len(open(fileName).readline().split('\t')) #get number of fields 
    dataMat = []; labelMat = []
    fr = open(fileName)
    for line in fr.readlines():
        lineArr =[]
        curLine = line.strip().split('\t')
        for i in range(numFeat-1):
            lineArr.append(float(curLine[i]))
        dataMat.append(lineArr)
        labelMat.append(float(curLine[-1]))
    return dataMat,labelMat

def stumpClassify(dataMatrix,dimen,threshVal,threshIneq):#just classify the data
    retArray = ones((shape(dataMatrix)[0],1))
    if threshIneq == 'lt':
        retArray[dataMatrix[:,dimen] <= threshVal] = -1.0
    else:
        retArray[dataMatrix[:,dimen] > threshVal] = -1.0
    return retArray
    

def buildStump(dataArr,classLabels,D):
    dataMatrix = mat(dataArr); labelMat = mat(classLabels).T
    m,n = shape(dataMatrix)
    numSteps = 10.0; bestStump = {}; bestClasEst = mat(zeros((m,1)))
    minError = inf #init error sum, to +infinity
    for i in range(n):#loop over all dimensions
        rangeMin = dataMatrix[:,i].min(); rangeMax = dataMatrix[:,i].max();
        stepSize = (rangeMax-rangeMin)/numSteps
        for j in range(-1,int(numSteps)+1):#loop over all range in current dimension
            for inequal in ['lt', 'gt']: #go over less than and greater than
                threshVal = (rangeMin + float(j) * stepSize)
                predictedVals = stumpClassify(dataMatrix,i,threshVal,inequal)#call stump classify with i, j, lessThan
                errArr = mat(ones((m,1)))
                errArr[predictedVals == labelMat] = 0
                weightedError = D.T*errArr  #calc total error multiplied by D
                #print "split: dim %d, thresh %.2f, thresh ineqal: %s, the weighted error is %.3f" % (i, threshVal, inequal, weightedError)
                if weightedError < minError:
                    minError = weightedError
                    bestClasEst = predictedVals.copy()
                    bestStump['dim'] = i
                    bestStump['thresh'] = threshVal
                    bestStump['ineq'] = inequal
    return bestStump,minError,bestClasEst


def adaBoostTrainDS(dataArr,classLabels,numIt=40):
    weakClassArr = []
    m = shape(dataArr)[0]
    D = mat(ones((m,1))/m)   #init D to all equal
    aggClassEst = mat(zeros((m,1)))
    for i in range(numIt):
        bestStump,error,classEst = buildStump(dataArr,classLabels,D)#build Stump
        #print "D:",D.T
        alpha = float(0.5*log((1.0-error)/max(error,1e-16)))#calc alpha, throw in max(error,eps) to account for error=0
        bestStump['alpha'] = alpha  
        weakClassArr.append(bestStump)                  #store Stump Params in Array
        #print "classEst: ",classEst.T
        expon = multiply(-1*alpha*mat(classLabels).T,classEst) #exponent for D calc, getting messy
        D = multiply(D,exp(expon))                              #Calc New D for next iteration
        D = D/D.sum()
        #calc training error of all classifiers, if this is 0 quit for loop early (use break)
        aggClassEst += alpha*classEst
        #print "aggClassEst: ",aggClassEst.T
        aggErrors = multiply(sign(aggClassEst) != mat(classLabels).T,ones((m,1)))
        errorRate = aggErrors.sum()/m
        print ("total error: ",errorRate)
        if errorRate == 0.0: break
    return weakClassArr,aggClassEst

def adaClassify(datToClass,classifierArr):
    dataMatrix = mat(datToClass)#do stuff similar to last aggClassEst in adaBoostTrainDS
    m = shape(dataMatrix)[0]
    aggClassEst = mat(zeros((m,1)))
    for i in range(len(classifierArr)):
        classEst = stumpClassify(dataMatrix,classifierArr[i]['dim'],\
                                 classifierArr[i]['thresh'],\
                                 classifierArr[i]['ineq'])#call stump classify
        aggClassEst += classifierArr[i]['alpha']*classEst
        #print aggClassEst
    return sign(aggClassEst)

def plotROC(predStrengths, classLabels):
    import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
    cur = (1.0,1.0) #cursor
    ySum = 0.0 #variable to calculate AUC
    numPosClas = sum(array(classLabels)==1.0)#标签等于1的和(也等于个数)
    yStep = 1/float(numPosClas); xStep = 1/float(len(classLabels)-numPosClas)
    sortedIndicies = predStrengths.argsort()#get sorted index, it's reverse
    sortData = sorted(predStrengths.tolist()[0])

    fig = plt.figure()
    fig.clf()
    ax = plt.subplot(111)
    #loop through all the values, drawing a line segment at each point
    for index in sortedIndicies.tolist()[0]:
        if classLabels[index] == 1.0:
            delX = 0; delY = yStep;
        else:
            delX = xStep; delY = 0;
            ySum += cur[1]
        #draw line from cur to (cur[0]-delX,cur[1]-delY)
        ax.plot([cur[0],cur[0]-delX],[cur[1],cur[1]-delY], c='b')
        cur = (cur[0]-delX,cur[1]-delY)
    ax.plot([0,1],[0,1],'b--')
    plt.xlabel('False positive rate'); plt.ylabel('True positive rate')
    plt.title('ROC curve for AdaBoost horse colic detection system')
    ax.axis([0,1,0,1])
    plt.show()
    print ("the Area Under the Curve is: ",ySum*xStep)
复制代码


注释:重点说明一下非均衡分类的图像绘制问题,想了很久才想明白!

都是相对而言的,其中本文说的曲线在左上方就为好,也是相对而言的,看你怎么定义个理解!

注释

相关阅读: 十大经典数据挖掘算法——PageRank

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