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Android资源res之矢量图完全指南(加SVG-path命令分析)

零、前言

第一次接触SVG时,被它的强大折服,下面两个小例子可以看看
SVG 文字sin型曲线动画SVG绘制星空效果
Android5.0+也支持矢量图VectorDrawable,是变异削弱版的SVG,但已经非常强大了
本来不想写SVG的path的,但是发现需要用到,还是总结一下吧


留图镇楼
手撕路径动画:
path变形 变形+旋转
常规动画


一、SVG的Path

1.SVG中的Path(有点反人类,可忽略)
命令 含义
M/m (x,y)+ 移动当前位置
L/l (x,y)+ 从当前位置绘制线段到指定位置
H/h (x)+ 从当前位置绘制,水平线到达指定的 x 坐标
V/v (x)+ 从当前位置绘制竖直线到达指定的 y 坐标
Z/z 闭合当前路径
C/c (x1,y1,x2,y2,x,y)+ 从当前位置绘制三次贝塞尔曲线到指定位置
S/s (x2,y2,x,y)+ 从当前位置光滑绘制三次贝塞尔曲线到指定位置
Q/q (x1,y1,x,y)+ 从当前位置绘制,二次贝塞尔曲线到指定位置
T/t (x,y)+ 从当前位置光滑绘制,二次贝塞尔曲线到指定位置
A/a (rx,ry,xr,laf,sf,x,y)  从当前位置绘制弧线到指定位置
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2.一开始觉得挺好玩,但是看到...

<path d="M886.786268 386.409745l-17.009967-2.551495a267.623477 267.623477 0 0 1-229.634551-229.351052l-2.267996-17.009967h-17.293466a290.586932 290.586932 0 0 0-226.799557 85.049834l-5.38649 5.669989-12.473975 149.687708 41.107419-41.10742a193.913621 193.913621 0 0 1 135.229236-56.699889 243.242525 243.242525 0 0 0 12.473976 40.82392 22.112957 22.112957 0 0 0-9.071982 5.10299L18.710963 859.853821C-13.324474 891.889258 3.968992 954.542636 11.339978 981.475083a23.813953 23.813953 0 0 1 0 3.401993 21.545958 21.545958 0 0 0 6.236988 15.308971l5.10299 5.10299 6.520487 6.236987h2.551495a22.112957 22.112957 0 0 0 5.953488 0h3.685493a264.221484 264.221484 0 0 0 66.905869 11.339978 75.127353 75.127353 0 0 0 54.715394-18.710963l537.51495-534.963455a22.112957 22.112957 0 0 0 5.10299-9.071983 219.712071 219.712071 0 0 0 40.82392 12.473976 194.48062 194.48062 0 0 1-56.699889 135.512735l-40.82392 41.10742 149.404208-12.757475 5.669989-5.38649a290.019934 290.019934 0 0 0 85.049834-226.799557zM134.378738 975.238095c-6.803987 6.803987-26.081949 11.623477-80.230344-3.685493-15.025471-54.148394-10.20598-73.426357-3.685493-79.946843l532.128461-535.530454a293.138427 293.138427 0 0 0 23.813954 32.885935 9.922481 9.922481 0 0 0-3.685493 2.267996l-60.101883 60.101882a21.262458 21.262458 0 0 0 0 30.334441 21.829457 21.829457 0 0 0 15.025471 6.236988 22.396456 22.396456 0 0 0 15.025471-5.953488l60.101882-60.385382a8.221484 8.221484 0 0 0 2.267996-3.685493 235.58804 235.58804 0 0 0 32.885935 23.813953zM779.339978 595.348837l-28.349945 1.984496A234.170543 234.170543 0 0 0 788.128461 453.599114v-17.009967l-17.009967-2.267995A208.939092 208.939092 0 0 1 590.529347 255.149502l-2.551495-17.009967H552.82392A235.871539 235.871539 0 0 0 425.249169 271.875969l2.267996-26.932447a247.211517 247.211517 0 0 1 173.501661-67.189369 310.431894 310.431894 0 0 0 245.227021 245.51052A247.495017 247.495017 0 0 1 779.339978 595.348837z


立马觉得不好玩了,SVG的路径基本上都是用设计软件制作的
咱就乖乖做个伸手党吧,这事交给设计师:svg的资源网站:Iconfont-阿里巴巴矢量图标库

剑.png


3.SVG转为Android可用Xml

下载的svg在Android可不能直接用哦,你有3种选择:

3.1--AS自带的转换

AS自带转换.png


3.2--网上在线转换:网址

在线转换.png


3.3--批量转化:

前两者都是单文件的转化,如果很多文件就有一个一个来
so,我自己写了工具类,批量转化一下详情可见:第三个工具
工具现在已经使用正则匹配了,更加精确,转换1000+,暂无失误情况

svg2xml.png


二、VectorDrawable的使用

vector一览:

vector.png

path标签一览:

path属性一览.png


1.修改颜色:两种方法

矢量剑.png

方法1:直接改:fillColor
方法2:使用时:android:tint="@color/red"
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2.分组与变换(吾王之剑岂可不正)

用group将path包起来就可以对path进行变换了

group变换.png

   <group
        android:rotation="-45"
        android:scaleX="0.7"
        android:scaleY="0.7"
        android:translateY="450">
    <path
        ...
    <path
        ...
    </group>
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3.线条与填充

线条与填充.png

关于path的知识和填充模式在Android关于Path你所知道的和不知道的一切,讲的很详细,这里就不费神了

三、矢量动画

动画基本套路如下--简单画一个示意图:

矢量动画--路径动画.png


1:路径动画:trimPathEnd

路径动画.gif


1.1--矢量图主体:icon_close.xml

记得为path取个名字(随意):android:name="trim_path"

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<vector xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
        android:width="48dp"
        android:height="48dp"
        android:viewportWidth="1024"
        android:viewportHeight="1024">
    <path
        android:strokeColor="@color/black"
        android:strokeWidth="10"
        android:name="trim_path"
android:pathData="M548.992 503.744L885.44 167.328a31.968 31.968 0 1 0-45.248-45.248L503.744 458.496 167.328 122.08a31.968 31.968 0 1 0-45.248 45.248l336.416 336.416L122.08 840.16a31.968 31.968 0 1 0 45.248 45.248l336.416-336.416L840.16 885.44a31.968 31.968 0 1 0 45.248-45.248L548.992 503.744z" /></vector>
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1.2--objectAnimator动画:trim_path_animator.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<objectAnimator
    xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:duration="2000"
    android:interpolator="@android:interpolator/linear"
    android:propertyName="trimPathEnd"
    android:valueFrom="0.0"
    android:valueTo="1.0"
    android:valueType="floatType"/>
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1.3--动画承载体:anima_close.xml
<animated-vector
xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
android:drawable="@drawable/icon_close">
<target
    android:animation="@animator/trim_path_animator"
    android:name="trim_path"/>
</animated-vector>
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1.4--使用
 <ImageView
     android:id="@+id/id_iv"
     android:layout_width="200dp"
     android:layout_height="200dp"
     android:src="@drawable/anima_close"
     app:layout_constraintBottom_toBottomOf="parent"
     app:layout_constraintEnd_toEndOf="parent"
     app:layout_constraintStart_toStartOf="parent"
     app:layout_constraintTop_toTopOf="parent"/>
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//点击时:
Drawable drawable = mIdIv.getDrawable();
if (drawable instanceof Animatable){
    ((Animatable) drawable).start();
}
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2.常规动画

非要平移或缩放还是针对View吧,矢量图是有边界的,超出边界不显示

常规动画.gif

2.1:--颜色动画:color_animator.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<set xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
     android:ordering="sequentially">
    <objectAnimator
        android:duration="2000"
        android:propertyName="strokeColor"
        android:valueFrom="@color/black"
        android:valueTo="@color/red"/>
    <objectAnimator
        android:duration="2000"
        android:propertyName="strokeColor"
        android:valueFrom="@color/red"
        android:valueTo="@color/black"/>
</set>
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2.2:--透明度动画:alpha_animator.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<set xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
     android:ordering="sequentially">
    <objectAnimator
        android:duration="1500"
        android:propertyName="strokeAlpha"
        android:valueFrom="1f"
        android:valueTo="0.5f"/>
    <objectAnimator
        android:duration="1500"
        android:propertyName="strokeAlpha"
        android:valueFrom="0.5f"
        android:valueTo="1f"/>
</set>
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2.3:--旋转动画:rotation_animator_360.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<set
    xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:ordering="sequentially">
    <objectAnimator
        android:duration="1500"
        android:propertyName="rotation"
        android:valueFrom="0"
        android:valueTo="360"/>

    <objectAnimator
        android:duration="1500"
        android:propertyName="rotation"
        android:valueFrom="360"
        android:valueTo="0"/>
</set>
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2.3:矢量图:icon_setting.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<vector xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
        android:width="48dp"
        android:height="48dp"
        android:viewportWidth="1024"
        android:viewportHeight="1024">
    <group android:name="container"
        android:pivotX="512"
        android:pivotY="512">
        <path
            android:name="setting_path"
            android:pathData="M514.216481 977.624786c-55.577806 0.002047-89.432869-13.881149-91.457991-14.734586-6.476505-2.729158-10.8143-8.92937-11.160177-15.94925-0.354064-7.203052-0.674359-14.411221-0.994654-21.620413-0.618077-13.917988-1.257643-28.307719-2.143826-42.354644-0.528026-8.348132-1.026376-8.606005-2.88163-9.564843-6.768147-3.497661-14.646582-6.115278-22.98755-8.885368-7.208169-2.39556-14.662955-4.871961-22.014386-8.124028-4.52199-2.001587-8.719592-4.269233-12.780071-6.462179-4.65809-2.51631-9.058306-4.89345-13.099343-6.385431-4.536316-1.684362-10.599406 3.223415-21.657252 14.137998-2.720971 2.686179-5.535063 5.464455-8.398274 7.985882l-28.677133 25.26236c-5.973038 5.26184-14.663978 6.053879-21.490453 1.958608-94.435813-56.662511-123.892705-127.005602-125.100206-129.972167-2.650363-6.509251-1.333368-13.96199 3.38612-19.168572l27.558659-30.40345c2.249227-2.480494 4.53734-4.933359 6.749728-7.306406 4.301979-4.612041 8.368598-8.971325 12.106736-13.455453 0.12996-0.706081 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            android:strokeWidth="8"
            android:strokeColor="#000"/>
    </group>
</vector>
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3.4:动画整合:anima_setting.xml
<animated-vector
    xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:drawable="@drawable/icon_setting">
    <target
        android:name="setting_path"
        android:animation="@animator/alpha_animator"/>
    <target
        android:name="container"
        android:animation="@animator/rotation_animator_360"/>
    <target
        android:animation="@animator/color_animator"
        android:name="setting_path"/>
    <target
        android:animation="@animator/trim_path_animator"
        android:name="setting_path"/>
</animated-vector>
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使用同上,不赘述了


3.5:路径转换动画

左上角的箭头是不是很惊艳:,第一次看到还以为是代码的效果呢,原来矢量图也可以轻松实现

DrawerLayout与ToolBar结合

注意:对路径进行objectAnimator,前提,path操作符都要一一对应
好吧,看来想躲都躲不掉了,那就来看看svg的path吧


四、SVG的path全指南:

1.操作符:M/m,L/l,H/h,V/v

大写字母都是绝对坐标,小写字母是相对坐标(相对尾点)

mlhv.png

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<vector xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
        android:width="48dp"
        android:height="48dp"
        android:viewportWidth="100"
        android:viewportHeight="100">
    <!--将指标轴平移-->
    <group
        android:translateX="4"
        android:translateY="4">
        <path
            android:strokeColor="@color/black"
            android:strokeWidth="4"
            android:pathData="M0,0 L20 20 0,30,60,60 H 0 V100"/>
    </group>
</vector>
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2.操作符:CSQT/csqt

注:小写字母也是相对坐标,只演示大写字母,小写字母自己对应一下就行了
C/c是三次贝塞尔:曾经写过一篇详细分析:详见
S/s是简化版的三次贝塞尔,根据一点,自动顺滑,具体怎么顺滑,看个大概吧...
Q/q是二次贝塞尔,三次的都会了,二次的还远吗? T/t简易版二次贝塞尔,需要至少两个才能发挥曲线作用

cs.png

qt.png


3.操作符:A/a

a.png

A(rx, ry, xr, laf, sf, x,y)----绘制弧线--最复杂的命令
rx - (radius-x)弧线所在椭圆的 x 半轴长
ry - (radius-y)弧线所在椭圆的 y 半轴长
xr - (xAxis-rotation)弧线所在椭圆的长轴角度
laf - (large-arc-flag)是否选择弧长较长的那一段弧
sf - (sweep-flag)是否选择逆时针方向的那一段弧
x, y- 弧的终点位置
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SVG弧线


五、路径属性动画

好了,知识储备有了,开始画图了,画个箭头和三横还不小case

path.png

箭头:M8,50, l100,0 M0,47, l40,40 M0,52 l40 -40
菜单:M0,50, l80,0 M0,80, l80,0 M0,20 l80 0
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path变形 变形+旋转

1.将两个path字符串放入string.xml

直接写也可以,但复用不方便

<resources>
    <string name="app_name">test</string>
    <string name="path_from">M8,50, l100,0 M0,47, l40,40 M0,52 l40 -40 </string>
    <string name="path_to">M0,50, l80,0 M0,80, l80,0 M0,20 l80 0</string>
</resources>
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2.矢量图:path_test.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<vector xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
        android:width="48dp"
        android:height="48dp"
        android:viewportWidth="100"
        android:viewportHeight="100">
    <group
        android:translateX="4"
        android:translateY="4">
        <path
            android:pathData="M0,0 A30,50,90,0,1,50,50"
            android:strokeWidth="4"
            android:strokeColor="@color/black"/>
    </group>
</vector>
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3.旋转动画:rotation_animator.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<objectAnimator
    xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:duration="1000"
    android:propertyName="rotation"
    android:valueFrom="0"
    android:valueTo="180"/>

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4.路径动画:path_animator.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>

<objectAnimator
    xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:duration="1000"
    android:interpolator="@android:interpolator/linear"
    android:propertyName="pathData"
    android:valueFrom="@string/path_from"
    android:valueTo="@string/path_to"
    android:valueType="pathType"/>
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5.矢量图文件:icon_path.xml
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>
<vector xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
        android:width="48dp"
        android:height="48dp"
        android:viewportWidth="100"
        android:viewportHeight="100">
    <group android:name="container"
        android:translateX="8"
        android:pivotX="50"
           android:scaleY="0.8"
           android:scaleX="0.8"
        android:pivotY="50">

        <path
            android:name="alpha_anim"
            android:pathData="@string/path_from"
            android:strokeWidth="8"
            android:strokeColor="#000"/>
    </group>
</vector>
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6.整合动画:anima_path.xml
<animated-vector
    xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
    android:drawable="@drawable/icon_path">
    <target
        android:name="alpha_anim"
        android:animation="@animator/path_animator"/>
    <target
        android:name="container"
        android:animation="@animator/rotation_animator">
    </target>
</animated-vector>
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ok,这样就行了,你可以随意定制两个路径,但必须保证两个路径的指令相同,不然会崩


后记:捷文规范

1.本文成长记录及勘误表
项目源码 日期 备注
V0.1--github 2018-12-8 Android资源res之矢量图完全指南(附赠SVG-path命令分析)
2.更多关于我
笔名 QQ 微信 爱好
张风捷特烈 1981462002 zdl1994328 语言
我的github 我的简书 我的掘金 个人网站
3.声明

1----本文由张风捷特烈原创,转载请注明
2----欢迎广大编程爱好者共同交流
3----个人能力有限,如有不正之处欢迎大家批评指证,必定虚心改正
4----看到这里,我在此感谢你的喜欢与支持


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