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MySQL指南之SQL语句基础

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零、结构化查询语言:SQL(Structured Query Language)

DDL 数据定义语言 管理库,表
DML 数据操作语言 增删改查 
DCL 数据控制语言 数据控制,权限访问等
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准备活动:创建库和表
CREATE DATABASE datatype;
USE datatype;

CREATE TABLE type_number(
type CHAR(12), 
byte TINYINT UNSIGNED,
range_singed VARCHAR(20),
range_unsinged VARCHAR(20),
info VARCHAR(40)
);
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目前状态:

mysql> SHOW DATABASES;                                                      
+--------------------+                                                      
| Database           |                                                      
+--------------------+                                                      
| datatype           |                                                      
| information_schema |                                                      
| mycode             |                                                      
| mysql              |                                                      
| performance_schema |                                                      
| seckill            |                                                      
+--------------------+                   

mysql> USE datatype;
Database changed

mysql> SHOW TABLES;
+--------------------+
| Tables_in_datatype |
+--------------------+
| type_number        |
+--------------------+

mysql> DESC type_number;
+----------------+---------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field          | Type                | Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+----------------+---------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| type           | char(12)            | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| byte           | tinyint(3) unsigned | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| range_singed   | varchar(20)         | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| range_unsinged | varchar(20)         | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
| info           | varchar(40)         | YES  |     | NULL    |       |
+----------------+---------------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
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一、DML 数据库记录操作 LEVEL 1

LEVEL 1先简单掌握一下下面的用法

MySQL基础操作LEVER1.png


1、记录的插入操作

INSERT INTO <表名> (属性,...) VALUES (值,...),...;

|-- 插入一条数据 INSERT INTO <表名> (属性,...) VALUES (值,...);
INSERT INTO 
type_number(type,byte,range_singed,range_unsinged,info) 
VALUES
('TINYINT',1,'-2⁷ ~ 2⁷-1','0 ~ 2⁸-1','很小整数');

|-- 查询所有 SELECT * FROM <表名>;
mysql> SELECT * FROM type_number;
+---------+------+----------------+----------------+--------------+
| type    | byte | range_singed   | range_unsinged | info         |
+---------+------+----------------+----------------+--------------+
| TINYINT |    1 | -2⁷ ~ 2⁷-1     | 0 ~ 2⁸-1       | 很小整数     |
+---------+------+----------------+----------------+--------------+

|-- 你也可以一次,插入多条数据
INSERT INTO 
type_number(type,byte,range_singed,range_unsinged,info) 
VALUES
('TINYINT',1,'-2⁷ ~ 2⁷-1','0 ~ 2⁸-1','很小整数'),
('SMALLINT',2,'-2¹⁶ ~ 2¹⁶-1','0 ~ 2¹⁶-1','小整数'),
('MEDIUMINT',3,'-2²⁴ ~ 2²⁴-1','0 ~ 2²⁴-1','中等整数'),
('INT',4,'-2³² ~ 2³²-1','0 ~ 2³²-1','标准整数'),
('BIGINT',8,'-2⁶⁴ ~ 2⁶⁴-1','0 ~ 2⁶⁴-1','大整数');

mysql> SELECT * FROM type_number;
+-----------+------+----------------------+----------------+--------------+
| type      | byte | range_singed         | range_unsinged | info         |
+-----------+------+----------------------+----------------+--------------+
| TINYINT   |    1 | -2⁷ ~ 2⁷-1           | 0 ~ 2⁸-1       | 很小整数     |
| TINYINT   |    1 | -2⁷ ~ 2⁷-1           | 0 ~ 2⁸-1       | 很小整数     |
| SMALLINT  |    2 | -2¹⁶ ~ 2¹⁶-1         | 0 ~ 2¹⁶-1      | 小整数       |
| MEDIUMINT |    3 | -2²⁴ ~ 2²⁴-1         | 0 ~ 2²⁴-1      | 中等整数     |
| INT       |    4 | -2³² ~ 2³²-1         | 0 ~ 2³²-1      | 标准整数     |
| BIGINT    |    8 | -2⁶⁴ ~ 2⁶⁴-1         | 0 ~ 2⁶⁴-1      | 大整数       |
+-----------+------+----------------------+----------------+--------------+
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2、记录的更新操作

UPDATE <表名> SET 属性 = 值,... WHERE 条件;

UPDATE type_number 
SET 
info='微型整数'
WHERE type = 'TINYINT';

mysql> SELECT * FROM type_number;
+-----------+------+----------------------+----------------+--------------+
| type      | byte | range_singed         | range_unsinged | info         |
+-----------+------+----------------------+----------------+--------------+
| TINYINT   |    1 | -2⁷ ~ 2⁷-1           | 0 ~ 2⁸-1       | 微型整数     |
| TINYINT   |    1 | -2⁷ ~ 2⁷-1           | 0 ~ 2⁸-1       | 微型整数     |
| SMALLINT  |    2 | -2¹⁶ ~ 2¹⁶-1         | 0 ~ 2¹⁶-1      | 小整数       |
| MEDIUMINT |    3 | -2²⁴ ~ 2²⁴-1         | 0 ~ 2²⁴-1      | 中等整数     |
| INT       |    4 | -2³² ~ 2³²-1         | 0 ~ 2³²-1      | 标准整数     |
| BIGINT    |    8 | -2⁶⁴ ~ 2⁶⁴-1         | 0 ~ 2⁶⁴-1      | 大整数       |
+-----------+------+----------------------+----------------+--------------+
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3.记录的删除操作

DELETE FROM <表名> WHERE 条件;

|--- 删除操作
DELETE FROM type_number 
WHERE type = 'TINYINT';

mysql> SELECT * FROM type_number;
+-----------+------+----------------------+----------------+--------------+
| type      | byte | range_singed         | range_unsinged | info         |
+-----------+------+----------------------+----------------+--------------+
| SMALLINT  |    2 | -2¹⁶ ~ 2¹⁶-1         | 0 ~ 2¹⁶-1      | 小整数       |
| MEDIUMINT |    3 | -2²⁴ ~ 2²⁴-1         | 0 ~ 2²⁴-1      | 中等整数     |
| INT       |    4 | -2³² ~ 2³²-1         | 0 ~ 2³²-1      | 标准整数     |
| BIGINT    |    8 | -2⁶⁴ ~ 2⁶⁴-1         | 0 ~ 2⁶⁴-1      | 大整数       |
+-----------+------+----------------------+----------------+--------------+
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4.记录的查询操作

SELECT 属性,... FROM <表名> WHERE 条件;

mysql> 
SELECT 
type,range_unsinged 
FROM type_number 
WHERE byte>=4;
+--------+----------------+
| type   | range_unsinged |
+--------+----------------+
| INT    | 0 ~ 2³²-1      |
| BIGINT | 0 ~ 2⁶⁴-1      |
+--------+----------------+
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二、图片表pic (LEVER 2)

这个是用来记录图片信息的表,数据准备过程详见番外篇:
[番外]-练习MySQL没素材?来一波字符串操作

MySQL查询LEVER2.png

1.建表语句
CREATE TABLE pic(
   id INT UNSIGNED AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
   pic_path  VARCHAR(120)   NOT NULL,
   pic_length  INT UNSIGNED  DEFAULT 0,
   pic_mime TINYINT UNSIGNED,
   pic_width SMALLINT UNSIGNED,
   pic_height SMALLINT UNSIGNED
 );

|--- id 为主键 自增长
|--- pic_path表示名字,不定长度 ,给个VARCHAR 120 吧,差不多够用吧
|--- 图片文件大小不会非常大,给个INT足够了 , 给个默认值 0 
|--- pic_mime 0 表示 image/png  1表示 image/jpeg 给个最小的
|--- pic_width和pic_height也不会非常大,无符号SMALLINT足够
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2.查询操作 AS 的作用
|-- 查询高大于1200像素的记录,使用AS 来 临时更改查询输出的属性名(不会改变实际记录)
mysql> 
SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_width AS '宽/px', 
pic_height AS '高/px' 
FROM pic 
WHERE pic_height>1200;

+----------------------+--------+--------+
| 路径                 | 宽/px  | 高/px  |
+----------------------+--------+--------+
| 30000X20000.jpg      |  30000 |  20000 |
| 3000X2000.jpg        |   3000 |   2000 |
| ecNKedygCmSjTWWF.jpg |    700 |   1352 |
| gtQiXnRfkvvTLinw.jpg |   2880 |   2025 |
| HXqqASHJETSlvpnc.jpg |   3600 |   2400 |
| ndbMXlwKuCpiiVqC.jpg |   1701 |   2268 |
| screen.png           |   1080 |   1920 |
| XQWGrglfjGVuJfzJ.jpg |   1200 |   1696 |
+----------------------+--------+--------+
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3.查询是属性可参与运算
|-- CONCAT函数用于连接字符串  注意:\需要转义 
mysql> 
SELECT 
CONCAT('E:\\SpringBootFiles\\imgs\\',pic_path) AS 绝对路径,
pic_width * pic_height AS '像素点个数' 
FROM pic 
WHERE pic_height>1200;

+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+
| 绝对路径                                     | 像素点个数      |
+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+
| E:\SpringBootFiles\imgs\30000X20000.jpg      |       600000000 |
| E:\SpringBootFiles\imgs\3000X2000.jpg        |         6000000 |
| E:\SpringBootFiles\imgs\ecNKedygCmSjTWWF.jpg |          946400 |
| E:\SpringBootFiles\imgs\gtQiXnRfkvvTLinw.jpg |         5832000 |
| E:\SpringBootFiles\imgs\HXqqASHJETSlvpnc.jpg |         8640000 |
| E:\SpringBootFiles\imgs\ndbMXlwKuCpiiVqC.jpg |         3857868 |
| E:\SpringBootFiles\imgs\screen.png           |         2073600 |
| E:\SpringBootFiles\imgs\XQWGrglfjGVuJfzJ.jpg |         2035200 |
+----------------------------------------------+-----------------+
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4.WHERE条件的千变万化

MySQL的WHERE.png

4.1: 条件 -- AND&&

条件必须全部满足

SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_width AS '宽/px', 
pic_height AS '高/px' 
FROM pic 
WHERE pic_height>1200 AND 
pic_width > 1500;

+----------------------+--------+--------+
| 路径                 | 宽/px  | 高/px  |
+----------------------+--------+--------+
| 30000X20000.jpg      |  30000 |  20000 |
| 3000X2000.jpg        |   3000 |   2000 |
| gtQiXnRfkvvTLinw.jpg |   2880 |   2025 |
| HXqqASHJETSlvpnc.jpg |   3600 |   2400 |
| ndbMXlwKuCpiiVqC.jpg |   1701 |   2268 |
+----------------------+--------+--------+

|--- AND 效果等于 &&
SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_width AS '宽/px', 
pic_height AS '高/px' 
FROM pic 
WHERE pic_height>1200 && 
pic_width > 1500;
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4.2: 条件 -- OR||

条件满足一个即可

SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_width AS '宽/px', 
pic_height AS '高/px' 
FROM pic 
WHERE pic_height>1200 OR 
pic_width > 1500;

+----------------------+--------+--------+
| 路径                 | 宽/px  | 高/px  |
+----------------------+--------+--------+
| 30000X20000.jpg      |  30000 |  20000 |
| 3000X2000.jpg        |   3000 |   2000 |
| ecNKedygCmSjTWWF.jpg |    700 |   1352 |
| gtQiXnRfkvvTLinw.jpg |   2880 |   2025 |
| HXqqASHJETSlvpnc.jpg |   3600 |   2400 |
| ndbMXlwKuCpiiVqC.jpg |   1701 |   2268 |
| screen.png           |   1080 |   1920 |
| XQWGrglfjGVuJfzJ.jpg |   1200 |   1696 |
+----------------------+--------+--------+

|--- OR 效果等于 || 
SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_width AS '宽/px', 
pic_height AS '高/px' 
FROM pic 
WHERE pic_height>1200 ||
pic_width > 1500;
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4.3: 条件 -- NOT!

对条件取反

SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_width AS '宽/px', 
pic_height AS '高/px' 
FROM pic 
WHERE NOT pic_height < 1200;  

+----------------------+--------+--------+
| 路径                 | 宽/px  | 高/px  |
+----------------------+--------+--------+
| 30000X20000.jpg      |  30000 |  20000 |
| 3000X2000.jpg        |   3000 |   2000 |
| ecNKedygCmSjTWWF.jpg |    700 |   1352 |
| gtQiXnRfkvvTLinw.jpg |   2880 |   2025 |
| HXqqASHJETSlvpnc.jpg |   3600 |   2400 |
| ndbMXlwKuCpiiVqC.jpg |   1701 |   2268 |
| screen.png           |   1080 |   1920 |
| XQWGrglfjGVuJfzJ.jpg |   1200 |   1696 |
+----------------------+--------+--------+
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4.4: 散点匹配IN(v1,v2,v3,...)

符合v1,v2,v3,...之一可匹配

SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_width AS '宽/px', 
pic_height AS '高/px' 
FROM pic 
WHERE pic_height IN (1696,2268); 

+----------------------+--------+--------+
| 路径                 | 宽/px  | 高/px  |
+----------------------+--------+--------+
| ndbMXlwKuCpiiVqC.jpg |   1701 |   2268 |
| XQWGrglfjGVuJfzJ.jpg |   1200 |   1696 |
+----------------------+--------+--------+
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4.5: 区间匹配BETWEEN v1 AND v2

v1,v2之间可匹配

SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_width AS '宽/px', 
pic_height AS '高/px' 
FROM pic 
WHERE pic_height BETWEEN 1696 AND 2268; 

+----------------------+--------+--------+
| 路径                 | 宽/px  | 高/px  |
+----------------------+--------+--------+
| 3000X2000.jpg        |   3000 |   2000 |
| gtQiXnRfkvvTLinw.jpg |   2880 |   2025 |
| ndbMXlwKuCpiiVqC.jpg |   1701 |   2268 |
| screen.png           |   1080 |   1920 |
| XQWGrglfjGVuJfzJ.jpg |   1200 |   1696 |
+----------------------+--------+--------+
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4.6:模糊查询:LIKE

'%'匹配任意多个字符,'_'匹配任意单个字符

mysql>
SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_width AS '宽/px', 
pic_height AS '高/px' 
FROM pic 
WHERE pic_path LIKE 'androi%'; 

+----------------------------------------------+--------+--------+
| 路径                                         | 宽/px  | 高/px  |
+----------------------------------------------+--------+--------+
| android\008525ebc2b7d434070e74c00841a30f.png |    544 |    544 |
| android\054d98e2d96dc42d9b2b036126fccf49.png |    544 |    544 |
| android\05baf2d03651d1110d7a403f14aee877.png |    544 |    544 |
| android\0655e07d6717847489cd222c9c9e0b1d.png |    500 |    500 |
| android\079c4cb46c95b2365b5bc5150e7d5213.png |    544 |    544 |
| android\07a4dc9b4b207cb420a71cbf941ad45a.png |    544 |    544 |
| android\07abb7972a5638b53afa3b5eb98b19c1.png |    500 |    500 |
    ......
 
mysql>
SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_width AS '宽/px', 
pic_height AS '高/px' 
FROM pic 
WHERE pic_path LIKE 'p_em%';

+--------------------------------------------+--------+--------+
| 路径                                       | 宽/px  | 高/px  |
+--------------------------------------------+--------+--------+
| poem\世界·绽放.jpg                         |   1148 |    712 |
| poem\我爱你,是火山岩的缄默.jpg            |    690 |    397 |
| poem\枝·你是树的狂舞.jpg                   |    500 |    333 |
| poem\海与鹿王.jpg                          |    799 |    499 |
| poem\游梦人·诗的诞生.jpg                   |    800 |    444 |
| poem\珊瑚墓地.jpg                          |   1104 |    719 |
+--------------------------------------------+--------+--------+
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4.7:比较符号= != < > <= >=

小学生都知道的,就不废话了,查看一下小于10Kb的图片

mysql>
SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 ,  
pic_length AS '大小/byte' 
FROM pic 
WHERE pic_length < 10*1024;

+----------------------------------------------+-------------+
| 路径                                         | 大小/byte   |
+----------------------------------------------+-------------+
| 30X20.jpg                                    |       10158 |
| android\613f2b8f0eaa8f63bedce9781527c9ab.png |        4001 |
| android\94b5c41232f9761403890c09c2b1aae3.png |        4001 |
| android\d3fd676f224f0734beb48d0c0d2f4e66.png |        4001 |
| udp发送与接收消息_控制台.png                 |        9184 |
+----------------------------------------------+-------------+
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5. GROUP BY分组查询

会先排序,再列出

|--- GROUP BY
SELECT 
pic_mime AS "类型",
avg(pic_length) AS '平均大小/byte' ,
count(pic_length) AS '总数量/个' ,
min(pic_length) AS '最小值/byte' ,
max(pic_length) AS '最大值/byte' ,
sum(pic_length) AS '总和/byte'
FROM pic 
GROUP BY pic_mime;

+--------+-------------------+---------------+----------------+----------------+-------------+
| 类型   | 平均大小/byte     | 总数量/个     | 最小值/byte    | 最大值/byte    | 总和/byte   |
+--------+-------------------+---------------+----------------+----------------+-------------+
|      0 |       141518.8734 |           229 |           4001 |         829338 |    32407822 |
|      1 |      2133272.8000 |            60 |          10158 |      116342886 |   127996368 |
+--------+-------------------+---------------+----------------+----------------+-------------+
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6.结果集筛选:HAVING

现在查询宽高比在1.1和1.3之间的图片

|-- 如果用WHERE 来查询 感觉有点不优雅
SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_width/pic_height AS '宽高比'
FROM pic 
WHERE pic_width/pic_height > 1.1 && pic_width/pic_height<1.3; 

+------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------+
| 路径                                                             | 宽高比    |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------+
| dQXbnTRjUdNxhiyl.jpg                                             |    1.2308 |
| JsXHWmKqOlziKmeA.jpg                                             |    1.2600 |
| logo\android\Android原生绘图之让你了解View的运动.png             |    1.2884 |
| 洛天依.jpg                                                       |    1.1990 |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+-----------+

|-- AS 相当于将列取了变量,对结果集再进行筛选用HAVING,用WHERE则报错,找不到列
SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_width/pic_height AS ratio 
FROM pic 
HAVING ratio > 1.1 && ratio <1.3;

+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+
| 路径                                                             | ratio  |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+
| dQXbnTRjUdNxhiyl.jpg                                             | 1.2308 |
| JsXHWmKqOlziKmeA.jpg                                             | 1.2600 |
| logo\android\Android原生绘图之让你了解View的运动.png             | 1.2884 |
| 洛天依.jpg                                                       | 1.1990 |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+
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7.结果排序:ORDER BY

按照ratio将序排列

SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_width/pic_height AS ratio 
FROM pic 
HAVING ratio > 1.1 && ratio <1.3;
ORDER BY ratio DESC 

+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+
| 路径                                                             | ratio  |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+
| dQXbnTRjUdNxhiyl.jpg                                             | 1.2308 |
| JsXHWmKqOlziKmeA.jpg                                             | 1.2600 |
| logo\android\Android原生绘图之让你了解View的运动.png             | 1.2884 |
| 洛天依.jpg                                                       | 1.1990 |
+------------------------------------------------------------------+--------+
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8.控制条目数:LIMIT
|-- 偏移一条,取两条
SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_width/pic_height AS ratio 
FROM pic 
HAVING ratio > 1.1 && ratio <1.3
ORDER BY ratio DESC LIMIT 1,2;

+----------------------+--------+
| 路径                 | ratio  |
+----------------------+--------+
| JsXHWmKqOlziKmeA.jpg | 1.2600 |
| dQXbnTRjUdNxhiyl.jpg | 1.2308 |
+----------------------+--------+
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三、子查询 (LEVER 3)

1.查询大于平均尺寸的图片 -- WHERE
|--- 出现在其他SQL语句内的SELECT语句
|--- 子查询必须在()内
|--- 增删改查都可以进行子查询,返回:标量,行,列或子查询
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|-- 1-1:查出图片平均大小
SELECT 
ROUND(AVG(pic_length),2) AS '平均大小' 
FROM pic;

+--------------+
| 平均大小     |
+--------------+
|    555031.80 |
+--------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

|-- 1-2:在用WHERE 筛选
SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_length  AS '大小/byte' 
FROM pic 
WHERE pic_length > 555031.80;

+----------------------------------------------+-------------+
| 路径                                         | 大小/byte   |
+----------------------------------------------+-------------+
| 30000X20000.jpg                              |   116342886 |
| 3000X2000.jpg                                |     3404969 |
| android\12284e5f7197d8be737fa967c8b00fbe.png |      829338 |
| android\594665add495ac9da8b6bbee1c63f1b8.png |      598974 |
| android\7cc97458727e23f7d161b8a1a7c6b453.png |      559420 |
| android\cbb1524f5ab4266698f3a6fc2992ccae.png |      829338 |
| android\d52539b1b508a594d1f2865037ff50c5.png |      598974 |
| android\f07ddfe5a103e4a024e14e2569f1d70e.png |      829338 |
| android\f0d1e7713d5557a8f9c74c9904843e09.png |      559420 |
| bg.png                                       |      688207 |
| gtQiXnRfkvvTLinw.jpg                         |      771187 |
| poem\珊瑚墓地.jpg                            |      984472 |
| XoazFNMQROveEPQn.jpg                         |      795364 |
+----------------------------------------------+-------------+

|--- 也就是将一个语句包在WHERE 条件里
SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_length  AS '大小/byte' 
FROM pic 
WHERE pic_length > (
    SELECT 
    ROUND(AVG(pic_length),2) 
    FROM pic
);
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2.查出每种类型的最新插入的图片 -- WHERE
SELECT 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_mime AS 类型 
FROM pic 
WHERE id IN (
    SELECT 
    max(id)
    FROM pic 
    GROUP BY pic_mime
);

+------------------+--------+
| 路径             | 类型   |
+------------------+--------+
| 洛天依.jpg       |      1 |
| 虚拟机栈.png     |      0 |
+------------------+--------+
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3.FROM子查询 -- FROM
SELECT 
id, 
pic_path AS 路径 , 
pic_length  AS '大小/byte' 
FROM pic 
WHERE id>=10&&id<=15 
ORDER BY pic_length DESC;

+----+----------------------------------------------+-------------+
| id | 路径                                         | 大小/byte   |
+----+----------------------------------------------+-------------+
| 15 | android\0f3bf63796ac370a08ee97b056b0587b.png |      178849 |
| 14 | android\0951ef0be68f0c498ca34ffcd7fc7faa.png |      175842 |
| 11 | android\079c4cb46c95b2365b5bc5150e7d5213.png |       86996 |
| 10 | android\0655e07d6717847489cd222c9c9e0b1d.png |       53764 |
| 12 | android\07a4dc9b4b207cb420a71cbf941ad45a.png |       46270 |
| 13 | android\07abb7972a5638b53afa3b5eb98b19c1.png |       43360 |
+----+----------------------------------------------+-------------+

|--- 将查询结果当做一张表,再查询操作
SELECT 
id,路径 FROM (
   SELECT 
   id, 
   pic_path AS 路径 , 
   pic_length  AS '大小/byte' 
   FROM pic 
   WHERE id>=10&&id<=15 
   ORDER BY pic_length DESC
) AS result 
WHERE `大小/byte` < 59999;

+----+----------------------------------------------+
| id | 路径                                         |
+----+----------------------------------------------+
| 10 | android\0655e07d6717847489cd222c9c9e0b1d.png |
| 12 | android\07a4dc9b4b207cb420a71cbf941ad45a.png |
| 13 | android\07abb7972a5638b53afa3b5eb98b19c1.png |
+----+----------------------------------------------+
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四、连接查询

0.创建关联表

首先连接查询要多张表,现在建一个mime_type 的表

|--- 建表
CREATE TABLE mime_type(
   mime_id SMALLINT UNSIGNED PRIMARY KEY,
   mime_info CHAR(24)
 );

|--- 插入数据
INSERT INTO mime_type(mime_id,mime_info) VALUES
(0,'image/png'),
(1,'image/jpeg'),
(2,'image/svg+xml'),
(3,'video/mp4'),
(4,'text/plain');

|--- 效果
mysql> select * from mime_type;
+---------+---------------+
| mime_id | mime_info     |
+---------+---------------+
|       0 | image/png     |
|       1 | image/jpeg    |
|       2 | image/svg+xml |
|       3 | video/mp4     |
|       4 | text/plain    |
+---------+---------------+

|-- 为了说明问题,pic表添加一条测试数据:pic_mime = 8  也就是 mime_type表找不到时
INSERT INTO pic(pic_path,pic_length,pic_mime,pic_width,pic_height) VALUES('test.jpg',100,8,300,200);
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1.内连接查询 INNER JOIN

SELECT 待查属性 FROM 表1 INNER JOIN 表2 ON 条件 WHERE 条件

SELECT id, pic_path AS 路径 , mime_type.mime_info AS 类型 , pic_length 
FROM pic INNER JOIN mime_type 
ON pic.pic_mime = mime_type.mime_id 
ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 4;

+-----+------------------+------------+------------+
| id  | 路径             | 类型       | pic_length |
+-----+------------------+------------+------------+
| 289 | 虚拟机栈.png     | image/png  |      63723 |
| 288 | 统一返回.png     | image/png  |      29485 |
| 287 | 洛天依.jpg       | image/jpeg |      42117 |
| 286 | 标记整理.png     | image/png  |      29288 |
+-----+------------------+------------+------------+
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2.左连接查询 : LEFT JOIN

保持左表的记录完整性,右表查不到就摆 NULL


SELECT id, pic_path AS 路径 , mime_type.mime_info AS 类型 , pic_length 
FROM pic LEFT JOIN mime_type 
ON pic.pic_mime = mime_type.mime_id 
ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 4;

+-----+------------------+------------+------------+
| id  | 路径             | 类型       | pic_length |
+-----+------------------+------------+------------+
| 290 | test.jpg         | NULL       |        100 |
| 289 | 虚拟机栈.png     | image/png  |      63723 |
| 288 | 统一返回.png     | image/png  |      29485 |
| 287 | 洛天依.jpg       | image/jpeg |      42117 |
+-----+------------------+------------+------------+
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3. 右(外)连接查询 :RIGHT JOIN

保持右表的记录完整性,左表查不到就摆 NULL

SELECT id, pic_path AS 路径 , mime_type.mime_info AS 类型 , pic_length 
FROM pic RIGHT JOIN mime_type 
ON pic.pic_mime = mime_type.mime_id 
ORDER BY id LIMIT 8;

+------+--------------------------------------+---------------+------------+
| id   | 路径                                 | 类型          | pic_length |
+------+--------------------------------------+---------------+------------+
| NULL | NULL                                 | text/plain    |       NULL |
| NULL | NULL                                 | video/mp4     |       NULL |
| NULL | NULL                                 | image/svg+xml |       NULL |
|    1 | 30000X20000.jpg                      | image/jpeg    |  116342886 |
|    2 | 3000X2000.jpg                        | image/jpeg    |    3404969 |
|    3 | 300X200.jpg                          | image/jpeg    |      99097 |
|    4 | 30X20.jpg                            | image/jpeg    |      10158 |
|    5 | 6dc9e8455c47d964e1a8a4ef04cf9477.jpg | image/jpeg    |     236254 |
+------+--------------------------------------+---------------+------------+
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4. 全(外)连接 (伪):使用UNION

MySQL不支持全外连接,所以只能采取关键字UNION来联合左、右连接的方法 UNION : 将若干条sql的查询结果集合并成一个。 UNION ALL不会覆盖相同结果

SELECT id, pic_path AS 路径 , mime_type.mime_info AS 类型 , pic_length 
FROM pic LEFT JOIN mime_type ON pic.pic_mime = mime_type.mime_id 
UNION(
SELECT id, pic_path AS 路径 , mime_type.mime_info AS 类型 , pic_length 
FROM pic RIGHT JOIN mime_type ON pic.pic_mime = mime_type.mime_id 
) 
ORDER BY id DESC;

+------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------+------------+
| id   | 路径                                                                               | 类型          | pic_length |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------+------------+
|  290 | test.jpg                                                                           | NULL          |        100 |
|  289 | 虚拟机栈.png                                                                       | image/png     |      63723 |
|  288 | 统一返回.png                                                                       | image/png     |      29485 |
|  287 | 洛天依.jpg                                                                         | image/jpeg    |      42117 |
...
|    3 | 300X200.jpg                                                                        | image/jpeg    |      99097 |
|    2 | 3000X2000.jpg                                                                      | image/jpeg    |    3404969 |
|    1 | 30000X20000.jpg                                                                    | image/jpeg    |  116342886 |
| NULL | NULL                                                                               | text/plain    |       NULL |
| NULL | NULL                                                                               | video/mp4     |       NULL |
| NULL | NULL                                                                               | image/svg+xml |       NULL |
+------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+---------------+------------+
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5. UNION小测试
CREATE TABLE a(
id CHAR(4),
num INT
);

INSERT INTO a(id,num) VALUES
('a',4),('b',6),('c',2),('d',8);

CREATE TABLE b(
id CHAR(4),
num INT
);
INSERT INTO b(id,num) VALUES
('b',8),('c',7),('d',3),('e',18);

mysql> SELECT * FROM a;         mysql> SELECT * FROM b;         
+------+------+                 +------+------+  
| id   | num  |                 | id   | num  |  
+------+------+                 +------+------+  
| a    |    4 |                 | b    |    8 |  
| b    |    6 |                 | c    |    7 |  
| c    |    2 |                 | d    |    3 |  
| d    |    8 |                 | e    |   18 |  
+------+------+                 +------+------+  

SELECT id,sum(num) FROM 
(SELECT * FROM a 
UNION ALL 
SELECT * FROM b) as temp 
GROUP BY id;

+------+----------+
| id   | sum(num) |
+------+----------+
| a    |        4 |
| b    |       14 |
| c    |        9 |
| d    |       11 |
| e    |       18 |
+------+----------+
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六、DDL 建库/表

1、关于操作数据库
SHOW DATABASES; # 显示所有的数据库
SHOW CREATE DATABASE <数据库名> # 查看数据库创建信息
USE <数据库名>; # 使用数据库
CREATE DATABASE <数据库名> [CHARACTER SET <字符集>]; # 创建一个将的数据库指定字符集
ALTER DATABASE <数据库名> CHARACTER SET <字符集>; # 修改数据库字符集
DROP DATABASE  <数据库名>; # 传说中的删库跑路
SELECT DATABASE(); # 查看当前选中的数据库
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2.显示数据库信息
SHOW TABLES; # 展示当前数据库中的表
SHOW TABLES FROM mysql # 展示指定数据库中的表
DESC <表名>; # 查看表结构
SHOW COLUMNS FROM <表名>; # 查看表结构
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3.创建表
|-- UNSIGNED 无符号  AUTO_INCREMENT 自增长 
|-- ZEROFILL 前面自动填 0 , 默认 UNSIGNED
CREATE TABLE create_test(
   id INT UNSIGNED AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
   code TINYINT(5) ZEROFILL DEFAULT 0  
 );
 
 INSERT INTO create_test(code) VALUES (5);
 INSERT INTO create_test VALUES (); #默认值测试
 mysql> SELECT * FROM create_test;
+----+-------+
| id | code  |
+----+-------+
|  1 | 00005 |
|  2 | 00000 |
+----+-------+
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4.为表增加属性

ALTER TABLE <表名> ADD 属性信息 [AFTER 属性] ;

|-- 看一下当前表结构

mysql> DESC create_test;
+-------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field | Type                         | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+-------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id    | int(10) unsigned             | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| code  | tinyint(5) unsigned zerofill | YES  |     | 00000   |                |
+-------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

mysql> ALTER TABLE create_test ADD age SMALLINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL;
mysql> DESC create_test;
+-------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field | Type                         | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+-------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id    | int(10) unsigned             | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| code  | tinyint(5) unsigned zerofill | YES  |     | 00000   |                |
| age   | smallint(5) unsigned         | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
+-------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

|-- AFTER可将属性排在指定属性之后(强迫症专用)
|-- ALTER TABLE create_test ADD password VARCHAR(32) AFTER id;
mysql> ALTER TABLE create_test ADD password VARCHAR(32) AFTER id;
mysql> DESC create_test;
+----------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field    | Type                         | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+----------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id       | int(10) unsigned             | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| password | varchar(32)                  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| code     | tinyint(5) unsigned zerofill | YES  |     | 00000   |                |
| age      | smallint(5) unsigned         | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
+----------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

|-- 一次添加多个属性
ALTER TABLE create_test ADD (aaa VARCHAR(32), bbb VARCHAR(32),ccc VARCHAR(32));
mysql> DESC create_test;
+----------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field    | Type                         | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+----------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id       | int(10) unsigned             | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| password | varchar(32)                  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| code     | tinyint(5) unsigned zerofill | YES  |     | 00000   |                |
| age      | smallint(5) unsigned         | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
| aaa      | varchar(32)                  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| bbb      | varchar(32)                  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| ccc      | varchar(32)                  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
+----------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
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5.为表删除属性

ALTER TABLE <表名> DROP 属性

ALTER TABLE create_test DROP aaa,DROP bbb,DROP ccc;

mysql> DESC create_test;
+----------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field    | Type                         | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+----------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id       | int(10) unsigned             | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| password | varchar(32)                  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| code     | tinyint(5) unsigned zerofill | YES  |     | 00000   |                |
| age      | smallint(5) unsigned         | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
+----------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
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6.修改属性的类型

ALTER TABLE <表名> MODIFY 属性 属性类型 [FIRST];

|-- 把password改成VARCHAR(40)
ALTER TABLE create_test MODIFY password VARCHAR(40);
mysql> DESC create_test;
+----------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field    | Type                         | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+----------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| id       | int(10) unsigned             | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| password | varchar(40)                  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| code     | tinyint(5) unsigned zerofill | YES  |     | 00000   |                |
| age      | smallint(5) unsigned         | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
+----------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+

|-- 将某个属性移到最顶
ALTER TABLE create_test MODIFY password VARCHAR(40) FIRST;
+----------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field    | Type                         | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+----------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| password | varchar(40)                  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| id       | int(10) unsigned             | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| code     | tinyint(5) unsigned zerofill | YES  |     | 00000   |                |
| age      | smallint(5) unsigned         | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
+----------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
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7.修改表的属性名

ALTER TABLE <表名> CHANGE 原属性 新属性 新属性类型;

mysql> ALTER TABLE create_test CHANGE password pw varchar(40);
mysql> DESC create_test;
+-------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| Field | Type                         | Null | Key | Default | Extra          |
+-------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
| pw    | varchar(40)                  | YES  |     | NULL    |                |
| id    | int(10) unsigned             | NO   | PRI | NULL    | auto_increment |
| code  | tinyint(5) unsigned zerofill | YES  |     | 00000   |                |
| age   | smallint(5) unsigned         | NO   |     | NULL    |                |
+-------+------------------------------+------+-----+---------+----------------+
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8.修改表名

方式一:ALTER TABLE 旧表名 RENAME 新表名; 方式二:RENAME TABLE 旧表名 TO 新表名;

ALTER TABLE create_test RENAME 阿姆斯特朗回旋加速喷气式阿姆斯特朗炮;
mysql> SHOW TABLES;
+--------------------------------------------------------+
| Tables_in_datatype                                     |
+--------------------------------------------------------+
| 阿姆斯特朗回旋加速喷气式阿姆斯特朗炮                   |
| a                                                      |
| b                                                      |
| mime_type                                              |
| pic                                                    |
| type_number                                            |
+--------------------------------------------------------+

RENAME TABLE 阿姆斯特朗回旋加速喷气式阿姆斯特朗炮 TO toly;

mysql> SHOW TABLES;
+--------------------+
| Tables_in_datatype |
+--------------------+
| a                  |
| b                  |
| mime_type          |
| pic                |
| toly               |
| type_number        |
+--------------------+
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SQL 的基础就这样 , 下篇见

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