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SpringBoot+RabbitMq的几种姿势

前言

目前主流的消息中间件有activemq,rabbitmq,rocketmq,kafka,我们要根据实际的业务场景来选择一款合适的消息中间件,关注的主要指标有,消息投递的可靠性,可维护性,吞吐量以及中间件的特色等重要指标来选择,大数据领域肯定是kafka,那么传统的业务场景就是解耦,异步,削峰。那么就在剩下的3款产品中选择一款,从吞吐量,社区的活跃度,消息的可靠性出发,一般的中小型公司选择rabbitmq来说可能更为合适。那么我们就来看看如何使用它吧。

环境准备

本案例基于springboot集成rabbitmq,本案例主要侧重要实际的code,对于基础理论知识请自行百度。
jdk-version:1.8
rabbitmq-version:3.7
springboot-version:2.1.4.RELEASE

  • pom文件
 <dependency>
    <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-amqp</artifactId>
</dependency>
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  • yml配置文件
spring:
  rabbitmq:
    password: guest
    username: guest
    port: 5672
    addresses: 127.0.0.1
    #开启发送失败返回
    publisher-returns: true
    #开启发送确认
    publisher-confirms: true
    listener:
      simple:
        #指定最小的消费者数量.
        concurrency: 2
        #指定最大的消费者数量.
        max-concurrency: 2
        #开启ack
        acknowledge-mode: auto
      #开启ack
      direct:
        acknowledge-mode: auto
    #支持消息的确认与返回
    template:
      mandatory: true
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配置rabbitMq的姿势

  • 姿势一

基于javaconfig

package com.lly.order.message;

import org.springframework.amqp.core.*;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Bean;
import org.springframework.context.annotation.Configuration;

/**
 * @ClassName RabbitMqConfig
 * @Description rabbitMq配置类
 * @Author lly
 * @Date 2019-05-13 15:05
 * @Version 1.0
 **/
@Configuration
public class RabbitMqConfig {

    public final static String DIRECT_QUEUE = "directQueue";
    public final static String TOPIC_QUEUE_ONE = "topic_queue_one";
    public final static String TOPIC_QUEUE_TWO = "topic_queue_two";
    public final static String FANOUT_QUEUE_ONE = "fanout_queue_one";
    public final static String FANOUT_QUEUE_TWO = "fanout_queue_two";

    public final static String TOPIC_EXCHANGE = "topic_exchange";
    public final static String FANOUT_EXCHANGE = "fanout_exchange";

    public final static String TOPIC_ROUTINGKEY_ONE = "common_key";
    public final static String TOPIC_ROUTINGKEY_TWO = "*.key";

//  direct模式队列
    @Bean
    public Queue directQueue() {
        return new Queue(DIRECT_QUEUE, true);
    }
//  topic 订阅者模式队列
    @Bean
    public Queue topicQueueOne() {
        return new Queue(TOPIC_QUEUE_ONE, true);
    }
    @Bean
    public Queue topicQueueTwo() {
        return new Queue(TOPIC_QUEUE_TWO, true);
    }
//  fanout 广播者模式队列
    @Bean
    public Queue fanoutQueueOne() {
        return new Queue(FANOUT_QUEUE_ONE, true);
    }
    @Bean
    public Queue fanoutQueueTwo() {
        return new Queue(FANOUT_QUEUE_TWO, true);
    }
//  topic 交换器
    @Bean
    public TopicExchange topExchange() {
        return new TopicExchange(TOPIC_EXCHANGE);
    }
//  fanout 交换器
    @Bean
    public FanoutExchange fanoutExchange() {
        return new FanoutExchange(FANOUT_EXCHANGE);
    }

//   订阅者模式绑定
    @Bean
    public Binding topExchangeBingingOne() {
        return BindingBuilder.bind(topicQueueOne()).to(topExchange()).with(TOPIC_ROUTINGKEY_ONE);
    }

    @Bean
    public Binding topicExchangeBingingTwo() {
        return BindingBuilder.bind(topicQueueTwo()).to(topExchange()).with(TOPIC_ROUTINGKEY_TWO);
    }
//   广播模式绑定
    @Bean
    public Binding fanoutExchangeBingingOne() {
        return BindingBuilder.bind(fanoutQueueOne()).to(fanoutExchange());
    }
    @Bean
    public Binding fanoutExchangeBingingTwo() {
        return BindingBuilder.bind(fanoutQueueTwo()).to(fanoutExchange());
    }
}

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  • 姿势二

基于注解

package com.lly.order.message;

import com.rabbitmq.client.Channel;
import lombok.extern.slf4j.Slf4j;
import org.springframework.amqp.core.AmqpTemplate;
import org.springframework.amqp.core.ExchangeTypes;
import org.springframework.amqp.core.Message;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.Exchange;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.Queue;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.QueueBinding;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.annotation.RabbitListener;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.connection.CorrelationData;
import org.springframework.amqp.rabbit.core.RabbitTemplate;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Component;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.time.LocalTime;
import java.util.UUID;


/**
 * @ClassName MQTest
 * @Description 消息队列测试
 * @Author lly
 * @Date 2019-05-13 10:50
 * @Version 1.0
 **/
@Component
@Slf4j
public class MQTest implements RabbitTemplate.ConfirmCallback, RabbitTemplate.ReturnCallback {

    private final static String QUEUE = "test_queue";

    @Autowired
    private AmqpTemplate amqpTemplate;

    @Autowired
    private RabbitTemplate rabbitTemplate;

    public MQTest(RabbitTemplate rabbitTemplate) {
        rabbitTemplate.setConfirmCallback(this);
        rabbitTemplate.setReturnCallback(this);
    }

    public void sendMq() {
        rabbitTemplate.convertAndSend("test_queue", "test_queue" + LocalTime.now());
        log.info("发送消息:{}", "test_queue" + LocalTime.now());
    }


    public void sendMqRabbit() {
        //回调id
        CorrelationData cId = new CorrelationData(UUID.randomUUID().toString());
//        rabbitTemplate.convertAndSend(RabbitMqConfig.FANOUT_EXCHANGE, "", "广播者模式测试",cId);
        Object object = rabbitTemplate.convertSendAndReceive(RabbitMqConfig.FANOUT_EXCHANGE, "", "广播者模式测试", cId);
        log.info("发送消息:{},object:{}", "广播者模式测试" + LocalTime.now(), object);
    }

    //发送订阅者模式
    public void sendMqExchange() {
        CorrelationData cId = new CorrelationData(UUID.randomUUID().toString());
        CorrelationData cId01 = new CorrelationData(UUID.randomUUID().toString());
        log.info("订阅者模式->发送消息:routing_key_one");
        rabbitTemplate.convertSendAndReceive("topic_exchange", "routing_key_one", "routing_key_one" + LocalTime.now(), cId);
        log.info("订阅者模式->发送消息routing_key_two");
        rabbitTemplate.convertSendAndReceive("topic_exchange", "routing_key_two", "routing_key_two" + LocalTime.now(), cId01);
    }
    //如果不存在,自动创建队列
    @RabbitListener(queuesToDeclare = @Queue("test_queue"))
    public void receiverMq(String msg) {
        log.info("接收到队列消息:{}", msg);
    }
      //如果不存在,自动创建队列和交换器并且绑定
    @RabbitListener(bindings = {
            @QueueBinding(value = @Queue(value = "topic_queue01", durable = "true"),
                    exchange = @Exchange(value = "topic_exchange", type = ExchangeTypes.TOPIC),
                    key = "routing_key_one")})
    public void receiverMqExchage(String msg, Channel channel, Message message) throws IOException {

        long deliveryTag = message.getMessageProperties().getDeliveryTag();

        try {
            log.info("接收到topic_routing_key_one消息:{}", msg);
            //发生异常
            log.error("发生异常");
            int i = 1 / 0;
            //告诉服务器收到这条消息 已经被我消费了 可以在队列删掉 这样以后就不会再发了 否则消息服务器以为这条消息没处理掉 后续还会在发
            channel.basicAck(deliveryTag, false);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            log.error("接收消息失败,重新放回队列");
            //requeu,为true,代表重新放入队列多次失败重新放回会导致队列堵塞或死循环问题,
            // 解决方案,剔除此消息,然后记录到db中去补偿
            //channel.basicNack(deliveryTag, false, true);
            //拒绝消息
            //channel.basicReject(deliveryTag, true);
        }
    }

    @RabbitListener(bindings = {
            @QueueBinding(value = @Queue(value = "topic_queue02", durable = "true"),
                    exchange = @Exchange(value = "topic_exchange", type = ExchangeTypes.TOPIC),
                    key = "routing_key_two")})
    public void receiverMqExchageTwo(String msg) {
        log.info("接收到topic_routing_key_two消息:{}", msg);
    }


    @RabbitListener(queues = RabbitMqConfig.FANOUT_QUEUE_ONE)
    public void receiverMqFanout(String msg, Channel channel, Message message) throws IOException {
        long deliveryTag = message.getMessageProperties().getDeliveryTag();
        try {
            log.info("接收到队列fanout_queue_one消息:{}", msg);
            channel.basicAck(deliveryTag, false);
        } catch (Exception e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
            //多次失败重新放回会导致队列堵塞或死循环问题 丢弃这条消息
//            channel.basicNack(message.getMessageProperties().getDeliveryTag(), false, false);
            log.error("接收消息失败");
        }
    }

    @RabbitListener(queues = RabbitMqConfig.FANOUT_QUEUE_TWO)
    public void receiverMqFanoutTwo(String msg) {
        log.info("接收到队列fanout_queue_two消息:{}", msg);
    }

    /**
     * @return
     * @Author lly
     * @Description 确认消息是否发送到exchange
     * @Date 2019-05-14 15:36
     * @Param [correlationData, ack, cause]
     **/
    @Override
    public void confirm(CorrelationData correlationData, boolean ack, String cause) {
        log.info("消息唯一标识id:{}", correlationData);
        log.info("消息确认结果!");
        log.error("消息失败原因,cause:{}", cause);
    }
    /**
     * @return
     * @Author lly
     * @Description 消息消费发生异常时返回
     * @Date 2019-05-14 16:22
     * @Param [message, replyCode, replyText, exchange, routingKey]
     **/
    @Override
    public void returnedMessage(Message message, int replyCode, String replyText, String exchange, String routingKey) {
        log.info("消息发送失败id:{}", message.getMessageProperties().getCorrelationId());
        log.info("消息主体 message : ", message);
        log.info("消息主体 message : ", replyCode);
        log.info("描述:" + replyText);
        log.info("消息使用的交换器 exchange : ", exchange);
        log.info("消息使用的路由键 routing : ", routingKey);
    }
}

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rabbitMq消息确认的三种方式

# 发送消息后直接确认消息
acknowledge-mode:none
# 根据消息消费的情况,智能判定消息的确认情况
acknowledge-mode:auto
# 手动确认消息的情况
acknowledge-mode:manual
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我们以topic模式来试验下消息的ack

自动确认消息模式
手动确认消息模式

然后我们再次消费消息,发现消息是没有被确认的,所以可以被再次消费

发现同样的消息还是存在的没有被队列删除,必须手动去ack,我们修改队列1的手动ack看看效果

channel.basicAck(deliveryTag, false);
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重启项目再次消费消息

再次查看队列里的消息,发现队列01里的消息被删除了,队列02的还是存在。

消费消息发生异常的情况,修改代码 模拟发生异常的情况下发生了什么, 异常发生了,消息被重放进了队列

但是会导致消息不停的循环消费,然后失败,致死循环调用大量服务器资源
所以我们正确的处理方式是,发生异常,将消息记录到db,再通过补偿机制来补偿消息,或者记录消息的重复次数,进行重试,超过几次后再放到db中。

总结

通过实际的code我们了解的rabbitmq在项目的具体的整合情况,消息ack的几种情况,方便在实际的场景中选择合适的方案来使用。如有不足,还望不吝赐教。

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