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requests库核心API源码分析

requests库是python爬虫使用频率最高的库,在网络请求中发挥着重要的作用,这边文章浅析requests的API源码。

该库文件结构如图:

2019-03-26-23_03_20.png


提供的核心接口在__init__文件中,如下:

from . import utilsfrom . import packagesfrom .models import Request, Response, PreparedRequestfrom .api import request, get, head, post, patch, put, delete, optionsfrom .sessions import session, Sessionfrom .status_codes import codesfrom .exceptions import (
    RequestException, Timeout, URLRequired,
    TooManyRedirects, HTTPError, ConnectionError,
    FileModeWarning, ConnectTimeout, ReadTimeout
)复制代码


requests常用方法在api.py文件中,源码如下:

# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-"""
requests.api
~~~~~~~~~~~~
This module implements the Requests API.
:copyright: (c) 2012 by Kenneth Reitz.
:license: Apache2, see LICENSE for more details.
"""from . import sessionsdef request(method, url, **kwargs):
    """Constructs and sends a :class:`Request <Request>`.
    :param method: method for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param params: (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples or bytes to send
        in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param data: (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples, bytes, or file-like
        object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param json: (optional) A JSON serializable Python object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param headers: (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the :class:`Request`.
    :param cookies: (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the :class:`Request`.
    :param files: (optional) Dictionary of ``'name': file-like-objects`` (or ``{'name': file-tuple}``) for multipart encoding upload.
        ``file-tuple`` can be a 2-tuple ``('filename', fileobj)``, 3-tuple ``('filename', fileobj, 'content_type')``
        or a 4-tuple ``('filename', fileobj, 'content_type', custom_headers)``, where ``'content-type'`` is a string
        defining the content type of the given file and ``custom_headers`` a dict-like object containing additional headers
        to add for the file.
    :param auth: (optional) Auth tuple to enable Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
    :param timeout: (optional) How many seconds to wait for the server to send data
        before giving up, as a float, or a :ref:`(connect timeout, read
        timeout) <timeouts>` tuple.
    :type timeout: float or tuple
    :param allow_redirects: (optional) Boolean. Enable/disable GET/OPTIONS/POST/PUT/PATCH/DELETE/HEAD redirection. Defaults to ``True``.
    :type allow_redirects: bool
    :param proxies: (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy.
    :param verify: (optional) Either a boolean, in which case it controls whether we verify
            the server's TLS certificate, or a string, in which case it must be a path
            to a CA bundle to use. Defaults to ``True``.
    :param stream: (optional) if ``False``, the response content will be immediately downloaded.
    :param cert: (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem). If Tuple, ('cert', 'key') pair.
    :return: :class:`Response <Response>` object
    :rtype: requests.Response
    Usage::
      >>> import requests
      >>> req = requests.request('GET', 'https://httpbin.org/get')
      <Response [200]>
    """
    # By using the 'with' statement we are sure the session is closed, thus we
    # avoid leaving sockets open which can trigger a ResourceWarning in some
    # cases, and look like a memory leak in others.
    with sessions.Session() as session:
        return session.request(method=method, url=url, **kwargs)def get(url, params=None, **kwargs):
    r"""Sends a GET request.
    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param params: (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples or bytes to send
        in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
    :return: :class:`Response <Response>` object
    :rtype: requests.Response
    """
    kwargs.setdefault('allow_redirects', True)
    return request('get', url, params=params, **kwargs)def options(url, **kwargs):
    r"""Sends an OPTIONS request.
    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
    :return: :class:`Response <Response>` object
    :rtype: requests.Response
    """
    kwargs.setdefault('allow_redirects', True)
    return request('options', url, **kwargs)def head(url, **kwargs):
    r"""Sends a HEAD request.
    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
    :return: :class:`Response <Response>` object
    :rtype: requests.Response
    """
    kwargs.setdefault('allow_redirects', False)
    return request('head', url, **kwargs)def post(url, data=None, json=None, **kwargs):
    r"""Sends a POST request.
    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param data: (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples, bytes, or file-like
        object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param json: (optional) json data to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
    :return: :class:`Response <Response>` object
    :rtype: requests.Response
    """
    return request('post', url, data=data, json=json, **kwargs)def put(url, data=None, **kwargs):
    r"""Sends a PUT request.
    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param data: (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples, bytes, or file-like
        object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param json: (optional) json data to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
    :return: :class:`Response <Response>` object
    :rtype: requests.Response
    """
    return request('put', url, data=data, **kwargs)def patch(url, data=None, **kwargs):
    r"""Sends a PATCH request.
    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param data: (optional) Dictionary, list of tuples, bytes, or file-like
        object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param json: (optional) json data to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
    :return: :class:`Response <Response>` object
    :rtype: requests.Response
    """
    return request('patch', url, data=data, **kwargs)def delete(url, **kwargs):
    r"""Sends a DELETE request.
    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param \*\*kwargs: Optional arguments that ``request`` takes.
    :return: :class:`Response <Response>` object
    :rtype: requests.Response
    """
    return request('delete', url, **kwargs)复制代码


常用的get、post、put、optins、delete方法都在该文件中实现,这些方法都是使用内部封装的一个模块:request,而request是对session.request内部模块的封装,提供一个上下文管理。

继续看最为核心的session.request模块源码:

    def request(self, method, url,
       ·······
        # Create the Request.
        req = Request(
            method=method.upper(),
            url=url,
            headers=headers,
            files=files,
            data=data or {},
            json=json,
            params=params or {},
            auth=auth,
            cookies=cookies,
            hooks=hooks,
        )
        prep = self.prepare_request(req)
        proxies = proxies or {}
        settings = self.merge_environment_settings(
            prep.url, proxies, stream, verify, cert
        )
        # Send the request.
        send_kwargs = {
            'timeout': timeout,
            'allow_redirects': allow_redirects,
        }
        send_kwargs.update(settings)
        resp = self.send(prep, **send_kwargs)
        return resp复制代码


在这里提交过来的请求信息将组装成Request请求对象,并对其中的配置参数进行合并,然后将Request请求和配置参数发送给self.send,来请求下载,继续看self.send

    def send(self, request, **kwargs):
        """Send a given PreparedRequest.
        :rtype: requests.Response
        """
        # Set defaults that the hooks can utilize to ensure they always have
        # the correct parameters to reproduce the previous request.
        kwargs.setdefault('stream', self.stream)
        kwargs.setdefault('verify', self.verify)
        kwargs.setdefault('cert', self.cert)
        kwargs.setdefault('proxies', self.proxies)
        # It's possible that users might accidentally send a Request object.
        # Guard against that specific failure case.
        if isinstance(request, Request):
            raise ValueError('You can only send PreparedRequests.')
        # Set up variables needed for resolve_redirects and dispatching of hooks
        allow_redirects = kwargs.pop('allow_redirects', True)
        stream = kwargs.get('stream')
        hooks = request.hooks
        # Get the appropriate adapter to use
        adapter = self.get_adapter(url=request.url)
        # Start time (approximately) of the request
        start = preferred_clock()
        # Send the request
        r = adapter.send(request, **kwargs)
        # Total elapsed time of the request (approximately)
        elapsed = preferred_clock() - start
        r.elapsed = timedelta(seconds=elapsed)
        # Response manipulation hooks
        r = dispatch_hook('response', hooks, r, **kwargs)
        # Persist cookies
        if r.history:
            # If the hooks create history then we want those cookies too
            for resp in r.history:
                extract_cookies_to_jar(self.cookies, resp.request, resp.raw)
        extract_cookies_to_jar(self.cookies, request, r.raw)
        # Redirect resolving generator.
        gen = self.resolve_redirects(r, request, **kwargs)
        # Resolve redirects if allowed.
        history = [resp for resp in gen] if allow_redirects else []
        # Shuffle things around if there's history.
        if history:
            # Insert the first (original) request at the start
            history.insert(0, r)
            # Get the last request made
            r = history.pop()
            r.history = history
        # If redirects aren't being followed, store the response on the Request for Response.next().
        if not allow_redirects:
            try:
                r._next = next(self.resolve_redirects(r, request, yield_requests=True, **kwargs))
            except StopIteration:
                pass
        if not stream:
            r.content
        return r复制代码


当然在self.send中核心的是下面几行行代码:

# Start time (approximately) of the request
        start = preferred_clock()
        # Send the request
        r = adapter.send(request, **kwargs)
        # Total elapsed time of the request (approximately)
        elapsed = preferred_clock() - start
        r.elapsed = timedelta(seconds=elapsed)
        # Response manipulation hooks
        r = dispatch_hook('response', hooks, r, **kwargs)复制代码


分别进行请求,并将请求响应内容构造成响应对象r,其中又引入本地模块adapter,该模块主要负责请求处理及其响应内容。

requests库实现很巧妙,对cookie保持、代理问题、SSL验证问题都做了处理,功能很全,其中细节不仔细去研读很难理解,这里只是对其实现过程做一个浅析,如果有感兴趣的同学,可以仔细研读每个模块和功能,其中有奥妙。

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