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iOS探索 类的加载过程

欢迎阅读iOS探索系列(按序阅读食用效果更加)

写在前面

在上一篇文章iOS探索 浅尝辄止dyld加载流程轻描淡写提了一句_objc_init_dyld_objc_notify_register,本文将围绕它展开探索分析

一、_objc_init方法

/***********************************************************************
* _objc_init
* Bootstrap initialization. Registers our image notifier with dyld.
* Called by libSystem BEFORE library initialization time
**********************************************************************/

void _objc_init(void)
{
    static bool initialized = false;
    if (initialized) return;
    initialized = true;
    
    // fixme defer initialization until an objc-using image is found?
    environ_init();
    tls_init();
    static_init();
    lock_init();
    exception_init();
    // 保存 - libobjc - dyld
    // C++ 怎么去做到通知
    // 指针 - 回调 - 函数的地址
    
    // 这里就是我们的数据 - images  - objc lib
    // dyld
    _dyld_objc_notify_register(&map_images, load_images, unmap_image);
}
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1.environ_init方法

environ_init()方法是初始化一系列环境变量,并读取影响运行时的环境变量

// Print OBJC_HELP and OBJC_PRINT_OPTIONS output.
if (PrintHelp  ||  PrintOptions) {
    if (PrintHelp) {
        _objc_inform("Objective-C runtime debugging. Set variable=YES to enable.");
        _objc_inform("OBJC_HELP: describe available environment variables");
        if (PrintOptions) {
            _objc_inform("OBJC_HELP is set");
        }
        _objc_inform("OBJC_PRINT_OPTIONS: list which options are set");
    }
    if (PrintOptions) {
        _objc_inform("OBJC_PRINT_OPTIONS is set");
    }

    for (size_t i = 0; i < sizeof(Settings)/sizeof(Settings[0]); i++) {
        const option_t *opt = &Settings[i];            
        if (PrintHelp) _objc_inform("%s: %s", opt->env, opt->help);
        if (PrintOptions && *opt->var) _objc_inform("%s is set", opt->env);
    }
}
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通过上述源码中的判断条件,我们可以得到一些环境变量的描述信息

  • OBJC_PRINT_LOAD_METHODS可以监控所有的+load方法,从而处理启动优化
  • OBJC_DISABLE_NONPOINTER_ISA可以控制isa优化开关,从而优化整个内存结构
  • 更多环境变量请终端输出export OBJC_HELP=1查看

2.tls_init方法

tls_init()方法是关于线程key的绑定

void tls_init(void)
{
#if SUPPORT_DIRECT_THREAD_KEYS
    _objc_pthread_key = TLS_DIRECT_KEY;
    pthread_key_init_np(TLS_DIRECT_KEY, &_objc_pthread_destroyspecific);
#else
    _objc_pthread_key = tls_create(&_objc_pthread_destroyspecific);
#endif
}
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3.static_init方法

static_init()方法注释中提到该方法会运行C++静态构造函数(只会运行系统级别的构造函数)

在dyld调用静态构造函数之前libc会调用_objc_init,所以必须自己去实现

/***********************************************************************
* static_init
* Run C++ static constructor functions.
* libc calls _objc_init() before dyld would call our static constructors, 
* so we have to do it ourselves.
**********************************************************************/
static void static_init()
{
    size_t count;
    auto inits = getLibobjcInitializers(&_mh_dylib_header, &count);
    for (size_t i = 0; i < count; i++) {
        inits[i]();
    }
}
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4.lock_init方法

lock_init()方法是个空函数,OC的锁机制完全采用C、C++那一套

void lock_init(void)
{
}
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5.exception_init方法

exception_init()初始化libobjc的异常处理系统,注册异常处理的回调,从而监控异常的处理

void exception_init(void)
{
    old_terminate = std::set_terminate(&_objc_terminate);
}
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调用只声明不实现不作任何处理的方法,就会报错,来到_objc_terminate

6._dyld_objc_notify_register方法

//
// Note: only for use by objc runtime
// Register handlers to be called when objc images are mapped, unmapped, and initialized.
// Dyld will call back the "mapped" function with an array of images that contain an objc-image-info section.
// Those images that are dylibs will have the ref-counts automatically bumped, so objc will no longer need to
// call dlopen() on them to keep them from being unloaded.  During the call to _dyld_objc_notify_register(),
// dyld will call the "mapped" function with already loaded objc images.  During any later dlopen() call,
// dyld will also call the "mapped" function.  Dyld will call the "init" function when dyld would be called
// initializers in that image.  This is when objc calls any +load methods in that image.
//
void _dyld_objc_notify_register(_dyld_objc_notify_mapped    mapped,
                                _dyld_objc_notify_init      init,
                                _dyld_objc_notify_unmapped  unmapped);
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_dyld_objc_notify_register方法的注释中可以得出:

  • 仅供objc运行时使用
  • 注册处理程序,以便在映射、取消映射和初始化objc图像时调用
  • dyld将会通过一个包含objc-image-info的镜像文件的数组回调mapped函数

_dyld_objc_notify_register中的三个参数含义如下:

  • map_images:dyld将image加载进内存时,会触发该函数
  • load_image:dyld初始化image会触发该函数
  • unmap_image:dyld将image移除时,会触发该函数

二、map_images->_read_images

当镜像加载到内存时map_image会触发

/***********************************************************************
* map_images
* Process the given images which are being mapped in by dyld.
* Calls ABI-agnostic code after taking ABI-specific locks.
*
* Locking: write-locks runtimeLock
**********************************************************************/
void
map_images(unsigned count, const char * const paths[],
           const struct mach_header * const mhdrs[])
{
    mutex_locker_t lock(runtimeLock);
    return map_images_nolock(count, paths, mhdrs);
}
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map_image调用map_images_nolock,其中hCount表示镜像文件的个数,调用_read_images来加载镜像文件

void 
map_images_nolock(unsigned mhCount, const char * const mhPaths[],
                  const struct mach_header * const mhdrs[])
{
    ...
    if (hCount > 0) {
        _read_images(hList, hCount, totalClasses, unoptimizedTotalClasses);
    }

    firstTime = NO;
}
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通过以上这些可以得出最核心的逻辑都在_read_images函数

1.创建表

通过doneOnce一次创建两张表gdb_objc_realized_classesallocatedClasses

if (!doneOnce) {
    doneOnce = YES;
    
    ...
    
    // namedClasses
    // Preoptimized classes don't go in this table.
    // 4/3 is NXMapTable's load factor
    int namedClassesSize = 
        (isPreoptimized() ? unoptimizedTotalClasses : totalClasses) * 4 / 3;
    gdb_objc_realized_classes =
        NXCreateMapTable(NXStrValueMapPrototype, namedClassesSize);
    
    allocatedClasses = NXCreateHashTable(NXPtrPrototype, 0, nil);
    
    ts.log("IMAGE TIMES: first time tasks");
}
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  • gdb_objc_realized_classes存储不在共享缓存且已命名的所有类,其容量是类数量的4/3
  • allocatedClasses存储已经初始化的类
// This is a misnomer: gdb_objc_realized_classes is actually a list of 
// named classes not in the dyld shared cache, whether realized or not.
NXMapTable *gdb_objc_realized_classes;  // exported for debuggers in objc-gdb.h

/***********************************************************************
* allocatedClasses
* A table of all classes (and metaclasses) which have been allocated
* with objc_allocateClassPair.
**********************************************************************/
static NXHashTable *allocatedClasses = nil;
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2.类的重映射

从列表中取出所有类,遍历进行处理

for (EACH_HEADER) {
    // 从编译后的类列表中取出所有类,获取到的是一个classref_t类型的指针
    classref_t *classlist = _getObjc2ClassList(hi, &count);
    
    if (! mustReadClasses(hi)) {
        // Image is sufficiently optimized that we need not call readClass()
        continue;
    }

    bool headerIsBundle = hi->isBundle();
    bool headerIsPreoptimized = hi->isPreoptimized();
    
    for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
         // 数组中会取出OS_dispatch_queue_concurrent、OS_xpc_object、NSRunloop等系统类,例如CF、Fundation、libdispatch中的类。以及自己创建的类
        Class cls = (Class)classlist[i];
        
        // 通过readClass函数获取处理后的新类,
        Class newCls = readClass(cls, headerIsBundle, headerIsPreoptimized);

        // 初始化所有懒加载的类需要的内存空间 - 现在数据没有加载到的 - 连类都没有初始化的
        if (newCls != cls  &&  newCls) {
            // Class was moved but not deleted. Currently this occurs 
            // only when the new class resolved a future class.
            // Non-lazily realize the class below.

            // 将懒加载的类添加到数组中
            resolvedFutureClasses = (Class *)
                realloc(resolvedFutureClasses, 
                        (resolvedFutureClassCount+1) * sizeof(Class));
            resolvedFutureClasses[resolvedFutureClassCount++] = newCls;
        }
    }
}
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readClass方法会返回Class,跟进去看看具体实现(把目光放在所有返回值上)

  • 当前类的父类中若有丢失的weak-linked类,则返回nil

  • 正常情况下不会走进popFutureNamedClass判断,这是专门针对未来的待处理的类的特殊操作,因此也不会对ro、rw进行操作(可打断点调试,创建类和系统类都不会进入)
  • 在调用addNamedClassaddClassTableEntry方法后返回cls

将当前类添加到已创建好的gdb_objc_realized_classes哈希表(存放所有类)

static void addNamedClass(Class cls, const char *name, Class replacing = nil)
{
    runtimeLock.assertLocked();
    Class old;
    if ((old = getClassExceptSomeSwift(name))  &&  old != replacing) {
        inform_duplicate(name, old, cls);

        // getMaybeUnrealizedNonMetaClass uses name lookups.
        // Classes not found by name lookup must be in the
        // secondary meta->nonmeta table.
        addNonMetaClass(cls);
    } else {
        NXMapInsert(gdb_objc_realized_classes, name, cls);
    }
    assert(!(cls->data()->flags & RO_META));

    // wrong: constructed classes are already realized when they get here
    // assert(!cls->isRealized());
}
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当前类已经初始化,所以要添加到allocatedClasses哈希表

static void addClassTableEntry(Class cls, bool addMeta = true) {
    runtimeLock.assertLocked();

    // This class is allowed to be a known class via the shared cache or via
    // data segments, but it is not allowed to be in the dynamic table already.
    assert(!NXHashMember(allocatedClasses, cls));

    if (!isKnownClass(cls))
        NXHashInsert(allocatedClasses, cls);
    if (addMeta)
        addClassTableEntry(cls->ISA(), false);
}
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3.修复重映射

将未映射Class和Super Class重映射,调用_getObjc2ClassRefs获取类的引用,调用_getObjc2SuperRefs获取父类的引用,通过remapClassRef进行重映射

// 将未映射Class和Super Class重映射,被remap的类都是非懒加载的类
if (!noClassesRemapped()) {
    for (EACH_HEADER) {
        // 重映射Class,注意是从_getObjc2ClassRefs函数中取出类的引用
        Class *classrefs = _getObjc2ClassRefs(hi, &count);
        for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
            remapClassRef(&classrefs[i]);
        }
        // fixme why doesn't test future1 catch the absence of this?
        classrefs = _getObjc2SuperRefs(hi, &count);
        for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
            remapClassRef(&classrefs[i]);
        }
    }
}
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4.添加SEL到namedSelectors表

通过_getObjc2SelectorRefs拿到MachO中的静态段__objc_selrefs,遍历列表调用sel_registerNameNoLock将SEL添加到namedSelectors哈希表

// 将所有SEL都注册到哈希表中,是另外一张哈希表
// Fix up @selector references
static size_t UnfixedSelectors;
{
    mutex_locker_t lock(selLock);
    for (EACH_HEADER) {
        if (hi->isPreoptimized()) continue;
        
        bool isBundle = hi->isBundle();
        SEL *sels = _getObjc2SelectorRefs(hi, &count);
        UnfixedSelectors += count;
        for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
            const char *name = sel_cname(sels[i]);
            // 注册SEL的操作
            sels[i] = sel_registerNameNoLock(name, isBundle);
        }
    }
}
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5.修复旧的函数指针调用遗留

通过_getObjc2MessageRefs获取到静态段__objc_selrefsfixupMessageRef遍历将函数指针进行注册,并fix为新的函数指针

// Fix up old objc_msgSend_fixup call sites
// 修复旧的函数指针调用遗留
for (EACH_HEADER) {
    message_ref_t *refs = _getObjc2MessageRefs(hi, &count);
    if (count == 0) continue;

    if (PrintVtables) {
        _objc_inform("VTABLES: repairing %zu unsupported vtable dispatch "
                     "call sites in %s", count, hi->fname());
    }
    for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
         // 内部将常用的alloc、objc_msgSend等函数指针进行注册,并fix为新的函数指针
        fixupMessageRef(refs+i);
    }
}
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6.添加Protocol到协议表

调用_getObjc2ProtocolList获取到__objc_protolist协议列表,readProtocol遍历添加Protocol到protocol_map哈希表

// Discover protocols. Fix up protocol refs.
// 遍历所有协议列表,并且将协议列表加载到Protocol的哈希表中
for (EACH_HEADER) {
    extern objc_class OBJC_CLASS_$_Protocol;
    // cls = Protocol类,所有协议和对象的结构体都类似,isa都对应Protocol类
    Class cls = (Class)&OBJC_CLASS_$_Protocol;
    assert(cls);
    // 获取protocol哈希表
    NXMapTable *protocol_map = protocols();
    bool isPreoptimized = hi->isPreoptimized();
    bool isBundle = hi->isBundle();

    // 从编译器中读取并初始化Protocol
    protocol_t **protolist = _getObjc2ProtocolList(hi, &count);
    for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
        readProtocol(protolist[i], cls, protocol_map, 
                     isPreoptimized, isBundle);
    }
}
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7.修复协议列表引用

通过_getObjc2ProtocolRefs获取到__objc_protorefs**(与__objc_protolist不是同一个东西)**遍历remapProtocolRef修复协议,remapProtocolRef比较当前协议和协议列表中同一内存地址的协议是否相同,如果不同则替换

// Fix up @protocol references
// Preoptimized images may have the right 
// answer already but we don't know for sure.
// 修复协议列表引用,优化后的images可能是正确的,但是并不确定
for (EACH_HEADER) {
    // 需要注意到是,下面的函数是_getObjc2ProtocolRefs,和上面的_getObjc2ProtocolList不一样
    protocol_t **protolist = _getObjc2ProtocolRefs(hi, &count);
    for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
        remapProtocolRef(&protolist[i]);
    }
}
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8.实现非懒加载的类

苹果官方对于非懒加载类的定义是:

NonlazyClass is all about a class implementing or not a +load method.

所以实现了+load方法的类是非懒加载类,否则就是懒加载类

下面是非懒加载类的加载流程:

  • _getObjc2NonlazyClassList获取到__objc_nlclslist,取出非懒加载类
  • addClassTableEntry再加载一遍——如果已添加就不会添加进去,确保整个结构都被添加
  • realizeClassWithoutSwift是接下来要关注的地方
// Realize non-lazy classes (for +load methods and static instances)
// 实现非懒加载的类,对于load方法和静态实例变量
for (EACH_HEADER) {
    classref_t *classlist = 
        _getObjc2NonlazyClassList(hi, &count);
    for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
        Class cls = remapClass(classlist[i]);
        // printf("non-lazy Class:%s\n",cls->mangledName());
        if (!cls) continue;

        // hack for class __ARCLite__, which didn't get this above
#if TARGET_OS_SIMULATOR
        if (cls->cache._buckets == (void*)&_objc_empty_cache  &&  
            (cls->cache._mask  ||  cls->cache._occupied)) 
        {
            cls->cache._mask = 0;
            cls->cache._occupied = 0;
        }
        if (cls->ISA()->cache._buckets == (void*)&_objc_empty_cache  &&  
            (cls->ISA()->cache._mask  ||  cls->ISA()->cache._occupied)) 
        {
            cls->ISA()->cache._mask = 0;
            cls->ISA()->cache._occupied = 0;
        }
#endif
        
        addClassTableEntry(cls);

        if (cls->isSwiftStable()) {
            if (cls->swiftMetadataInitializer()) {
                _objc_fatal("Swift class %s with a metadata initializer "
                            "is not allowed to be non-lazy",
                            cls->nameForLogging());
            }
            // fixme also disallow relocatable classes
            // We can't disallow all Swift classes because of
            // classes like Swift.__EmptyArrayStorage
        }
        // 实现所有非懒加载的类(实例化类对象的一些信息,例如rw)
        realizeClassWithoutSwift(cls);
    }
}
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realizeClassWithoutSwift分析:

rw初始化并将ro拷贝一份到rw中的ro

  • rw表示readWrite,由于动态性,可能会往类中添加属性、方法、添加协议
  • ro表示readOnly,在编译时已经确定了内存
ro = (const class_ro_t *)cls->data();
if (ro->flags & RO_FUTURE) {
    // This was a future class. rw data is already allocated.
    rw = cls->data();
    ro = cls->data()->ro;
    cls->changeInfo(RW_REALIZED|RW_REALIZING, RW_FUTURE);
} else {
    // Normal class. Allocate writeable class data.
    rw = (class_rw_t *)calloc(sizeof(class_rw_t), 1);
    rw->ro = ro;
    rw->flags = RW_REALIZED|RW_REALIZING;
    cls->setData(rw);
}
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②递归调用realizeClassWithoutSwift完善继承链并处理当前类的父类元类;如果有父类,就通过addSubclass当前类放到父类子类列表中去

if (!cls) return nil;
...
supercls = realizeClassWithoutSwift(remapClass(cls->superclass));
metacls = realizeClassWithoutSwift(remapClass(cls->ISA()));
...
// Update superclass and metaclass in case of remapping
cls->superclass = supercls;
cls->initClassIsa(metacls);
...
// Connect this class to its superclass's subclass lists
if (supercls) {
    addSubclass(supercls, cls);
} else {
    addRootClass(cls);
}
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③当isa找到根元类之后,根元类的isa是指向自己的,不会返回nil从而导致死循环——remapClass中对类在表中进行查找的操作,如果表中已有该类,则返回一个空值;如果没有则返回当前类,这样保证了类只加载一次并结束递归

static Class remapClass(Class cls)
{
    runtimeLock.assertLocked();

    Class c2;

    if (!cls) return nil;

    NXMapTable *map = remappedClasses(NO);
    if (!map  ||  NXMapMember(map, cls, (void**)&c2) == NX_MAPNOTAKEY) {
        return cls;
    } else {
        return c2;
    }
}
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④最后调用了methodizeClass

// Attach categories
methodizeClass(cls);
return cls;
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⑤在methodizeClass中,从ro读取方法列表(包括分类中的方法)、属性列表、协议列表赋值给rw

// Install methods and properties that the class implements itself.
method_list_t *list = ro->baseMethods();
if (list) {
    prepareMethodLists(cls, &list, 1, YES, isBundleClass(cls));
    rw->methods.attachLists(&list, 1);
}

property_list_t *proplist = ro->baseProperties;
if (proplist) {
    rw->properties.attachLists(&proplist, 1);
}

protocol_list_t *protolist = ro->baseProtocols;
if (protolist) {
    rw->protocols.attachLists(&protolist, 1);
}

// Root classes get bonus method implementations if they don't have 
// them already. These apply before category replacements.
if (cls->isRootMetaclass()) {
    // root metaclass
    addMethod(cls, SEL_initialize, (IMP)&objc_noop_imp, "", NO);
}

// Attach categories.
category_list *cats = unattachedCategoriesForClass(cls, true /*realizing*/);
attachCategories(cls, cats, false /*don't flush caches*/);
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attachLists是如何插入数据的呢?方法属性协议都可以直接通过attachLists插入吗?

方法、属性继承于entsize_list_tt协议则是类似entsize_list_tt实现,都是二维数组

void attachLists(List* const * addedLists, uint32_t addedCount) {
    if (addedCount == 0) return;

    if (hasArray()) {
        // many lists -> many lists
        uint32_t oldCount = array()->count;//10
        uint32_t newCount = oldCount + addedCount;//4
        setArray((array_t *)realloc(array(), array_t::byteSize(newCount)));
        array()->count = newCount;// 10+4

        memmove(array()->lists + addedCount, array()->lists,
                oldCount * sizeof(array()->lists[0]));
        
        memcpy(array()->lists, addedLists, 
               addedCount * sizeof(array()->lists[0]));
    }
    else if (!list  &&  addedCount == 1) {
        // 0 lists -> 1 list
        list = addedLists[0];
    } 
    else {
        // 1 list -> many lists
        List* oldList = list;
        uint32_t oldCount = oldList ? 1 : 0;
        uint32_t newCount = oldCount + addedCount;
        setArray((array_t *)malloc(array_t::byteSize(newCount)));
        array()->count = newCount;
        if (oldList) array()->lists[addedCount] = oldList;
        memcpy(array()->lists, addedLists, 
               addedCount * sizeof(array()->lists[0]));
    }
}
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attachLists的源码实现中可以得出:

  • (多对多)如果当前调用attachListslist_array_tt二维数组中有多个一维数组

    • 通过realloc对容器进行重新分配大小为原来的大小加上新增的大小
    • 通过memmove把原来的数据移动到容器的末尾
    • 把新的数据memcpy拷贝到容器的起始位置
  • (0对一)如果调用attachListslist_array_tt二维数组为空且新增大小数目为 1

    • 直接赋值addedList的第一个list
  • (一对多)如果当前调用attachListslist_array_tt二维数组只有一个一维数组

    • 通过realloc对容器进行重新分配大小为原来的大小加上新增的大小
    • 由于只有一个一维数组,所以直接赋值到新Array的最后一个位置
    • 把新的数据memcpy拷贝到容器的起始位置

memmovememcpy的区别在于:

  • 在不知道需要平移的内存大小时,需要memmove进行内存平移,保证安全
  • memcpy从原内存地址的起始位置开始拷贝若干个字节到目标内存地址中,速度快

9.实现懒加载类

前面已经提到了实现+load方法的类就是非懒加载类,那么没有实现的类就是懒加载类

也可以通过printf("non-lazy Class:%s\n",cls->mangledName())去打印获取到所有非懒加载类,发现只有实现了+load的类才会被打印(FXPerson内部实现了+load,其他都是系统内置的类)

那么懒加载类是何时加到内存中的呢?

之所以叫懒加载类还不是因为它懒嘛😆,用到的时候才会加到内存中

调用懒加载类让他干活就是发送消息,仔细阅读lookUpImpOrForward实现发现会有这么一顿操作

  • 类没有被加载时,调用realizeClassMaybeSwiftAndLeaveLocked
  • realizeClassMaybeSwiftAndLeaveLocked调用realizeClassMaybeSwiftMaybeRelock
  • realizeClassMaybeSwiftMaybeRelock调用realizeClassWithoutSwift
IMP lookUpImpOrForward(Class cls, SEL sel, id inst, 
                       bool initialize, bool cache, bool resolver)
{
    ...
    if (!cls->isRealized()) {
        cls = realizeClassMaybeSwiftAndLeaveLocked(cls, runtimeLock);
        // runtimeLock may have been dropped but is now locked again
    }
    ...
}

static Class
realizeClassMaybeSwiftAndLeaveLocked(Class cls, mutex_t& lock)
{
    return realizeClassMaybeSwiftMaybeRelock(cls, lock, true);
}

static Class
realizeClassMaybeSwiftMaybeRelock(Class cls, mutex_t& lock, bool leaveLocked)
{
    lock.assertLocked();

    if (!cls->isSwiftStable_ButAllowLegacyForNow()) {
        // Non-Swift class. Realize it now with the lock still held.
        // fixme wrong in the future for objc subclasses of swift classes
        realizeClassWithoutSwift(cls);
        if (!leaveLocked) lock.unlock();
    } else {
        // Swift class. We need to drop locks and call the Swift
        // runtime to initialize it.
        lock.unlock();
        cls = realizeSwiftClass(cls);
        assert(cls->isRealized());    // callback must have provoked realization
        if (leaveLocked) lock.lock();
    }

    return cls;
}
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Q1:实现了+load的子类ClassA继承于没有+load的父类ClassBClassA属于非懒加载类,在_read_images时加载。那么ClassB是什么呢?何时加载?

A1ClassB属于懒加载类,在子类realizeClassWithoutSwift递归时加载到内存(前文有提到realizeClassWithoutSwift会完善继承链并处理当前类的父类、元类

Q2:父类A实现了+load方法,子类B没有实现,那么子类B是懒加载类?何时加载?

A2子类B属于懒加载类父类A干活跟子类B没关系,用到时再加载

10.发现和处理所有Category

由于篇幅有限,将在下一篇文章中介绍

// Discover categories.
// 发现和处理所有Category
for (EACH_HEADER) {
    // 外部循环遍历找到当前类,查找类对应的Category数组
    category_t **catlist = 
        _getObjc2CategoryList(hi, &count);
    bool hasClassProperties = hi->info()->hasCategoryClassProperties();

    for (i = 0; i < count; i++) {
        // 内部循环遍历当前类的所有Category
        category_t *cat = catlist[i];
        Class cls = remapClass(cat->cls);
        
        // 首先,通过其所属的类注册Category。如果这个类已经被实现,则重新构造类的方法列表。
        bool classExists = NO;
        if (cat->instanceMethods ||  cat->protocols  
            ||  cat->instanceProperties) 
        {
            // 将Category添加到对应Class的value中,value是Class对应的所有category数组
            addUnattachedCategoryForClass(cat, cls, hi);
            // 将Category的method、protocol、property添加到Class
            if (cls->isRealized()) {
                remethodizeClass(cls);
                classExists = YES;
            }
            if (PrintConnecting) {
                _objc_inform("CLASS: found category -%s(%s) %s", 
                             cls->nameForLogging(), cat->name, 
                             classExists ? "on existing class" : "");
            }
        }

        // 这块和上面逻辑一样,区别在于这块是对Meta Class做操作,而上面则是对Class做操作
        // 根据下面的逻辑,从代码的角度来说,是可以对原类添加Category的
        if (cat->classMethods  ||  cat->protocols  
            ||  (hasClassProperties && cat->_classProperties)) 
        {
            addUnattachedCategoryForClass(cat, cls->ISA(), hi);
            if (cls->ISA()->isRealized()) {
                remethodizeClass(cls->ISA());
            }
            if (PrintConnecting) {
                _objc_inform("CLASS: found category +%s(%s)", 
                             cls->nameForLogging(), cat->name);
            }
        }
    }
}
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写在后面

本文主要讲了MachO中的数据是如何加载到内存的,有些细节点需要自己LLVM调试才会有所体会

下一篇文章会梳理分类的加载load_image流程

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