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ZXing源码解析三:相机的配置与数据的处理

上一篇文章主要是掌握ZXing解码整体的步骤,关于细节方面的代码就一笔带过了,本篇文章将会深入细节,更详细的讲解有关相机配置方面的知识。

ZXing的相机初始配置

  直接看代码,找到调用相机初始化配置的代码,上篇文章已经分析了在CaptureActivity中怎么调到initCamera方法的,这里再次看下这个方法的代码,如下

private void initCamera(SurfaceHolder surfaceHolder) {
    if (surfaceHolder == null) {
      throw new IllegalStateException("No SurfaceHolder provided");
    }
    //相机已经打开
    if (cameraManager.isOpen()) {
      Log.w(TAG, "initCamera() while already open -- late SurfaceView callback?");
      return;
    }
    try {
      //打开相机并初始化硬件参数
      cameraManager.openDriver(surfaceHolder);
      // 实例化一个handler并开始预览.
      if (handler == null) {
        handler = new CaptureActivityHandler(this, decodeFormats, decodeHints, characterSet, cameraManager);
      }
      decodeOrStoreSavedBitmap(null, null);
    } catch (IOException ioe) {
      Log.w(TAG, ioe);
      displayFrameworkBugMessageAndExit();
    } catch (RuntimeException e) {
      // Barcode Scanner has seen crashes in the wild of this variety:
      // java.?lang.?RuntimeException: Fail to connect to camera service
      Log.w(TAG, "Unexpected error initializing camera", e);
      displayFrameworkBugMessageAndExit();
    }
  }
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上篇文章分析到这句代码cameraManager.openDriver(surfaceHolder);就直接说了这句代码的作用,并没有进入openDriver方法详细的看代码,这里看下openDriver中的代码,如下

 public synchronized void openDriver(SurfaceHolder holder) throws IOException {
    OpenCamera theCamera = camera;
    if (theCamera == null) {
      //更具requestedCameraId打开对应的摄像头
      theCamera = OpenCameraInterface.open(requestedCameraId);
      if (theCamera == null) {
        throw new IOException("Camera.open() failed to return object from driver");
      }
      camera = theCamera;
    }
    //是否已经初始化,没有初始化则进行初始化
    if (!initialized) {
      initialized = true;
      configManager.initFromCameraParameters(theCamera);//分析一
      if (requestedFramingRectWidth > 0 && requestedFramingRectHeight > 0) {
        setManualFramingRect(requestedFramingRectWidth, requestedFramingRectHeight);
        requestedFramingRectWidth = 0;
        requestedFramingRectHeight = 0;
      }
    }

    Camera cameraObject = theCamera.getCamera();
    Camera.Parameters parameters = cameraObject.getParameters();
    String parametersFlattened = parameters == null ? null : parameters.flatten(); // Save these, temporarily
    try {
      configManager.setDesiredCameraParameters(theCamera, false);
    } catch (RuntimeException re) {
      // Driver failed
      Log.w(TAG, "Camera rejected parameters. Setting only minimal safe-mode parameters");
      Log.i(TAG, "Resetting to saved camera params: " + parametersFlattened);
      // Reset:
      if (parametersFlattened != null) {
        parameters = cameraObject.getParameters();
        parameters.unflatten(parametersFlattened);
        try {
          cameraObject.setParameters(parameters);
          configManager.setDesiredCameraParameters(theCamera, true);
        } catch (RuntimeException re2) {
          // Well, darn. Give up
          Log.w(TAG, "Camera rejected even safe-mode parameters! No configuration");
        }
      }
    }
    cameraObject.setPreviewDisplay(holder);

  }
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这里重点看下“分析一”initFromCameraParameters方法中的代码,如下

void initFromCameraParameters(OpenCamera camera) {
    Camera.Parameters parameters = camera.getCamera().getParameters();
    WindowManager manager = (WindowManager) context.getSystemService(Context.WINDOW_SERVICE);
    //获取WindowManager默认的Display
    Display display = manager.getDefaultDisplay();
    //屏幕的旋转角度
    int displayRotation = display.getRotation();

    int cwRotationFromNaturalToDisplay;
    switch (displayRotation) {
      case Surface.ROTATION_0:
        cwRotationFromNaturalToDisplay = 0;
        break;
      case Surface.ROTATION_90:
        cwRotationFromNaturalToDisplay = 90;
        break;
      case Surface.ROTATION_180:
        cwRotationFromNaturalToDisplay = 180;
        break;
      case Surface.ROTATION_270:
        cwRotationFromNaturalToDisplay = 270;
        break;
      default:
        // Have seen this return incorrect values like -90
        if (displayRotation % 90 == 0) {
          cwRotationFromNaturalToDisplay = (360 + displayRotation) % 360;
        } else {
          throw new IllegalArgumentException("Bad rotation: " + displayRotation);
        }
    }
    Log.i(TAG, "Display at: " + cwRotationFromNaturalToDisplay);

    int cwRotationFromNaturalToCamera = camera.getOrientation();
    Log.i(TAG, "Camera at: " + cwRotationFromNaturalToCamera);

    // Still not 100% sure about this. But acts like we need to flip this:
    if (camera.getFacing() == CameraFacing.FRONT) {
      cwRotationFromNaturalToCamera = (360 - cwRotationFromNaturalToCamera) % 360;
      Log.i(TAG, "Front camera overriden to: " + cwRotationFromNaturalToCamera);
    }

    /*
    SharedPreferences prefs = PreferenceManager.getDefaultSharedPreferences(context);
    String overrideRotationString;
    if (camera.getFacing() == CameraFacing.FRONT) {
      overrideRotationString = prefs.getString(PreferencesActivity.KEY_FORCE_CAMERA_ORIENTATION_FRONT, null);
    } else {
      overrideRotationString = prefs.getString(PreferencesActivity.KEY_FORCE_CAMERA_ORIENTATION, null);
    }
    if (overrideRotationString != null && !"-".equals(overrideRotationString)) {
      Log.i(TAG, "Overriding camera manually to " + overrideRotationString);
      cwRotationFromNaturalToCamera = Integer.parseInt(overrideRotationString);
    }
     */

    cwRotationFromDisplayToCamera =
        (360 + cwRotationFromNaturalToCamera - cwRotationFromNaturalToDisplay) % 360;
    Log.i(TAG, "Final display orientation: " + cwRotationFromDisplayToCamera);
    if (camera.getFacing() == CameraFacing.FRONT) {
      Log.i(TAG, "Compensating rotation for front camera");
      cwNeededRotation = (360 - cwRotationFromDisplayToCamera) % 360;
    } else {
      cwNeededRotation = cwRotationFromDisplayToCamera;
    }
    Log.i(TAG, "Clockwise rotation from display to camera: " + cwNeededRotation);

    Point theScreenResolution = new Point();
    display.getSize(theScreenResolution);
    screenResolution = theScreenResolution;
    Log.i(TAG, "Screen resolution in current orientation: " + screenResolution);
    cameraResolution = CameraConfigurationUtils.findBestPreviewSizeValue(parameters, screenResolution);
    Log.i(TAG, "Camera resolution: " + cameraResolution);
    bestPreviewSize = CameraConfigurationUtils.findBestPreviewSizeValue(parameters, screenResolution);
    Log.i(TAG, "Best available preview size: " + bestPreviewSize);

    boolean isScreenPortrait = screenResolution.x < screenResolution.y;
    boolean isPreviewSizePortrait = bestPreviewSize.x > bestPreviewSize.y;

    if (isScreenPortrait == isPreviewSizePortrait) {
      previewSizeOnScreen = bestPreviewSize;
    } else {
      previewSizeOnScreen = new Point(bestPreviewSize.y, bestPreviewSize.x);
    }
    Log.i(TAG, "Preview size on screen: " + previewSizeOnScreen);
  }
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虽然这个方法代码有点多,但是因为这个方法是用来相机初始配置的,所以,要详细的分析一下,首先看下这部分的代码

Camera.Parameters parameters = camera.getCamera().getParameters();
    WindowManager manager = (WindowManager) context.getSystemService(Context.WINDOW_SERVICE);
    //获取WindowManager默认的Display
    Display display = manager.getDefaultDisplay();
    //屏幕的旋转角度
    int displayRotation = display.getRotation();

    int cwRotationFromNaturalToDisplay;
    switch (displayRotation) {
      case Surface.ROTATION_0:
        cwRotationFromNaturalToDisplay = 0;
        break;
      case Surface.ROTATION_90:
        cwRotationFromNaturalToDisplay = 90;
        break;
      case Surface.ROTATION_180:
        cwRotationFromNaturalToDisplay = 180;
        break;
      case Surface.ROTATION_270:
        cwRotationFromNaturalToDisplay = 270;
        break;
      default:
        // Have seen this return incorrect values like -90
        if (displayRotation % 90 == 0) {
          cwRotationFromNaturalToDisplay = (360 + displayRotation) % 360;
        } else {
          throw new IllegalArgumentException("Bad rotation: " + displayRotation);
        }
    }
    Log.i(TAG, "Display at: " + cwRotationFromNaturalToDisplay);

    int cwRotationFromNaturalToCamera = camera.getOrientation();
    Log.i(TAG, "Camera at: " + cwRotationFromNaturalToCamera);

    // Still not 100% sure about this. But acts like we need to flip this:
    if (camera.getFacing() == CameraFacing.FRONT) {
      cwRotationFromNaturalToCamera = (360 - cwRotationFromNaturalToCamera) % 360;
      Log.i(TAG, "Front camera overriden to: " + cwRotationFromNaturalToCamera);
    }

    cwRotationFromDisplayToCamera =
        (360 + cwRotationFromNaturalToCamera - cwRotationFromNaturalToDisplay) % 360;
    Log.i(TAG, "Final display orientation: " + cwRotationFromDisplayToCamera);
    if (camera.getFacing() == CameraFacing.FRONT) {
      Log.i(TAG, "Compensating rotation for front camera");
      cwNeededRotation = (360 - cwRotationFromDisplayToCamera) % 360;
    } else {
      cwNeededRotation = cwRotationFromDisplayToCamera;
    }
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相信没有相机开发经验的同学,看到这段代码会一脸懵逼,没关系,我们一步步来,在理解这段代码前,需要我们掌握下面的一些概念。

  • 屏幕坐标: 在Android系统中,屏幕的左上角是坐标系统的原点(0,0)坐标。原点向右延伸是X轴正方向,原点向下延伸是Y轴正方向。
  • 自然方向: 每个设备都有一个自然方向,手机和平板的自然方向不同。手机的自然方向是portrait(竖屏),平板的自然方向是landscape(横屏)。
  • 图像传感器(Image Sensor)方向: 手机相机的图像数据都是来自于摄像头硬件的图像传感器,这个传感器在被固定到手机上后有一个默认的取景方向,这个方向如下图所示,坐标原点位于手机横放时的左上角:

  • 相机图像的预览方向: Android 系统提供一个 API 来手动设置 Camera 的预览方向,叫 setDisplayOrientation。默认情况下这个值是0,与图像 Sensor 方向一致,所以对于横屏应用来说就不需要更改这个 Camera 预览方向。 但是,如果你的应用是竖屏应用,就必须通过这个 API 将 Camera 的预览方向旋转 90 度,让摄像头预览方向与手机屏幕方向保持一致,这样才会得到正确的预览画面。
  • 相机采集照片的方向: 这个与相机的预览方向无关,相机采集照片的方向与Image Sensor 方向一致,如果竖屏拍照后直接保存,这时候保存的照片会是横屏的。

强烈建议大家先看下这篇文章 Android: Camera相机开发详解(上) —— 知识储备,相信看过之后,你就会理解上面的代码了,其实,上面代码的作用就是设置相机采集图片的预览方向,就是无论手机是横屏还是竖屏,你看到的图像都是与手机方向一致的。

设置相机预览图像的最佳比例

  文章前部分,已经分析了ZXing设置预览方向的代码,但是只设置预览方向还是不够的,还要根据屏幕的宽高比来找到相机采集图片最合适的预览尺寸,否则就会出现相机预览图拉伸变形的问题。   继续看initFromCameraParameters方法中的代码,如下

 Point theScreenResolution = new Point();
    display.getSize(theScreenResolution);
    screenResolution = theScreenResolution;
    Log.i(TAG, "Screen resolution in current orientation: " + screenResolution);
    cameraResolution = CameraConfigurationUtils.findBestPreviewSizeValue(parameters, screenResolution);
    Log.i(TAG, "Camera resolution: " + cameraResolution);
    bestPreviewSize = CameraConfigurationUtils.findBestPreviewSizeValue(parameters, screenResolution);
    Log.i(TAG, "Best available preview size: " + bestPreviewSize);

    boolean isScreenPortrait = screenResolution.x < screenResolution.y;
    boolean isPreviewSizePortrait = bestPreviewSize.x > bestPreviewSize.y;

    if (isScreenPortrait == isPreviewSizePortrait) {
      previewSizeOnScreen = bestPreviewSize;
    } else {
      previewSizeOnScreen = new Point(bestPreviewSize.y, bestPreviewSize.x);
    }
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上面代码中的screenResolution变量是屏幕分辨率,从这个变量中可以分别获取屏幕宽高的像素值。我们来重点看下这两句代码

cameraResolution = CameraConfigurationUtils.findBestPreviewSizeValue(parameters, screenResolution);
bestPreviewSize = CameraConfigurationUtils.findBestPreviewSizeValue(parameters, screenResolution);
    
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上面的一句代码是获取相机的最佳分辨率,下面的一句代码是获取获取相机的最佳预览尺寸。现在来看下是怎么获取最佳尺寸的,findBestPreviewSizeValue方法的代码如下

public static Point findBestPreviewSizeValue(Camera.Parameters parameters, Point screenResolution) {
    //获取相机支持的尺寸,手机不同会有不同的值
    List<Camera.Size> rawSupportedSizes = parameters.getSupportedPreviewSizes();
    if (rawSupportedSizes == null) {
      Log.w(TAG, "Device returned no supported preview sizes; using default");
      Camera.Size defaultSize = parameters.getPreviewSize();
      if (defaultSize == null) {
        throw new IllegalStateException("Parameters contained no preview size!");
      }
      return new Point(defaultSize.width, defaultSize.height);
    }

    if (Log.isLoggable(TAG, Log.INFO)) {
      StringBuilder previewSizesString = new StringBuilder();
      for (Camera.Size size : rawSupportedSizes) {
        previewSizesString.append(size.width).append('x').append(size.height).append(' ');
      }
      Log.i(TAG, "Supported preview sizes: " + previewSizesString);
    }

    //这句代码是获取屏幕宽高的比例
    double screenAspectRatio = screenResolution.x / (double) screenResolution.y;

    // Find a suitable size, with max resolution
    int maxResolution = 0;
    Camera.Size maxResPreviewSize = null;
    //for循环的作用是找到相机合适的尺寸和最大的分辨率,这里
    //合适的尺寸指的是和屏幕宽高比相同的尺寸。
    for (Camera.Size size : rawSupportedSizes) {
      int realWidth = size.width;
      int realHeight = size.height;
      int resolution = realWidth * realHeight;
      if (resolution < MIN_PREVIEW_PIXELS) {
        continue;
      }

      boolean isCandidatePortrait = realWidth < realHeight;
      int maybeFlippedWidth = isCandidatePortrait ? realHeight : realWidth;
      int maybeFlippedHeight = isCandidatePortrait ? realWidth : realHeight;
      double aspectRatio = maybeFlippedWidth / (double) maybeFlippedHeight;
      double distortion = Math.abs(aspectRatio - screenAspectRatio);
      if (distortion > MAX_ASPECT_DISTORTION) {
        continue;
      }
    //这句代码是找到与屏幕宽高比一致的尺寸,否则就用相机默认的尺寸
      if (maybeFlippedWidth == screenResolution.x && maybeFlippedHeight == screenResolution.y) {
        Point exactPoint = new Point(realWidth, realHeight);
        Log.i(TAG, "Found preview size exactly matching screen size: " + exactPoint);
        return exactPoint;
      }

      // Resolution is suitable; record the one with max resolution
      if (resolution > maxResolution) {
        maxResolution = resolution;
        maxResPreviewSize = size;
      }
    }

    // If no exact match, use largest preview size. This was not a great idea on older devices because
    // of the additional computation needed. We're likely to get here on newer Android 4+ devices, where
    // the CPU is much more powerful.
    if (maxResPreviewSize != null) {
      Point largestSize = new Point(maxResPreviewSize.width, maxResPreviewSize.height);
      Log.i(TAG, "Using largest suitable preview size: " + largestSize);
      return largestSize;
    }

    // If there is nothing at all suitable, return current preview size
    Camera.Size defaultPreview = parameters.getPreviewSize();
    if (defaultPreview == null) {
      throw new IllegalStateException("Parameters contained no preview size!");
    }
    Point defaultSize = new Point(defaultPreview.width, defaultPreview.height);
    Log.i(TAG, "No suitable preview sizes, using default: " + defaultSize);
    return defaultSize;
  }

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从上面代码中的注释可以看到这里存在一些小问题,上面代码的逻辑是有与屏幕像素比例相同的相机尺寸才返回,否则就用相机默认的尺寸,相机默认的尺寸可能与屏幕的尺寸比有较大的差距,这样就会出现预览图像变形的问题。

这里可以将代码优化为,返回最接近屏幕宽高比的相机尺寸。这里的优化将会在后面的文章中进行详细的讲解。

上面的代码是将一些变量的值设置好,最终,配置相机的参数在CameraConfigurationManager类中的setDesiredCameraParameters中,这里就不详细分析了。

旋转采集图片的方向

  这里没有处理采集的照片,采集到的照片数据还是横屏的,如下

这个图片是我竖屏时扫描的,但是获取相机采集的数据确是横屏的,所以,需要进行一些处理。 首先,需要在相机捕获图像数据成功的回调方法onPreviewFrame中改变代码,更改后的代码如下

@Override
  public void onPreviewFrame(byte[] data, Camera camera) {
    Point cameraResolution = configManager.getCameraResolution();
    Handler thePreviewHandler = previewHandler;
    if (cameraResolution != null && thePreviewHandler != null) {
      Point screenResolution = configManager.getScreenResolution();
      Message message;
      if (screenResolution.x < screenResolution.y){
        // 手机为竖屏时
        message = thePreviewHandler.obtainMessage(previewMessage, cameraResolution.y,
                cameraResolution.x, data);
      } else {
        // 手机为横屏时
        message = thePreviewHandler.obtainMessage(previewMessage, cameraResolution.x,
                cameraResolution.y, data);
      }
      message.sendToTarget();
      previewHandler = null;
    } else {
      Log.d(TAG, "Got preview callback, but no handler or resolution available");
    }
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解释:手机竖屏时,相机传感器采集的数据为横屏的数据,为了与竖屏相对应,需要将相机采集的图片宽高互换,这里只是互换了宽高,但是采集的数据宽高并没有转换,因此还需要将数据的宽高转换。

代码如下

 //将原始图像传感器的数据转换为竖屏
    if (width < height) {
      // portrait
      byte[] rotatedData = new byte[data.length];
      for (int x = 0; x < width; x++) {
        for (int y = 0; y < height; y++)
          rotatedData[y * width + width - x - 1] = data[y + x * height];
      }
      data = rotatedData;
    }

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将上面的代码,加入到DecodeHandler类中的decode方法开头即可。

虽然,这时已经将相机采集的横屏数据转化为竖屏的了,但是,工作还没有完成,还需要设置获取二维码的区域,设置的方法是CameraManager类中的getFramingRectInPrevie方法。这里我就补贴具体的代码了,大家根据前文的内容和自己的思考来修改里面的代码。

结束语

  文章主要分析了相机配置的代码,选择拍摄图像的最佳尺寸及处理相机采集到的数据,重点是要理解相机的数据采集与图像预览的设置。本篇修改的代码在这里

参考文章
Android: Camera相机开发详解(上) —— 知识储备
Android 相机预览需要注意的几点

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