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HTTP客户端连接,选择HttpClient还是OkHttp?

写在前面

为什么会写这篇文章,起因于和朋友的聊天

这又触及到我的知识盲区了,首先来一波面向百度学习,直接根据关键字httpclient和okhttp的区别、性能比较进行搜索,没有找到想要的答案,于是就去overstackflow上看看是不是有人问过这个问题,果然不会让你失望的
所以从使用、性能、超时配置方面进行比较

使用

HttpClient和OkHttp一般用于调用其它服务,一般服务暴露出来的接口都为http,http常用请求类型就为GET、PUT、POST和DELETE,因此主要介绍这些请求类型的调用

HttpClient使用介绍

使用HttpClient发送请求主要分为一下几步骤:

  • 创建 CloseableHttpClient对象或CloseableHttpAsyncClient对象,前者同步,后者为异步
  • 创建Http请求对象
  • 调用execute方法执行请求,如果是异步请求在执行之前需调用start方法

创建连接:

CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClientBuilder.create().build();
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该连接为同步连接

GET请求:

@Test
public void testGet() throws IOException {
    String api = "/api/files/1";
    String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
    HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet(url);
    CloseableHttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(httpGet);
    System.out.println(EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity()));
}
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使用HttpGet表示该连接为GET请求,HttpClient调用execute方法发送GET请求

PUT请求:

@Test
public void testPut() throws IOException {
    String api = "/api/user";
    String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
    HttpPut httpPut = new HttpPut(url);
    UserVO userVO = UserVO.builder().name("h2t").id(16L).build();
    httpPut.setHeader("Content-Type", "application/json;charset=utf8");
    httpPut.setEntity(new StringEntity(JSONObject.toJSONString(userVO), "UTF-8"));
    CloseableHttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(httpPut);
    System.out.println(EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity()));
}
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POST请求:

  • 添加对象
    @Test
    public void testPost() throws IOException {
        String api = "/api/user";
        String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
        HttpPost httpPost = new HttpPost(url);
        UserVO userVO = UserVO.builder().name("h2t2").build();
        httpPost.setHeader("Content-Type", "application/json;charset=utf8");
        httpPost.setEntity(new StringEntity(JSONObject.toJSONString(userVO), "UTF-8"));
        CloseableHttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(httpPost);
        System.out.println(EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity()));
    }
    复制代码
    该请求是一个创建对象的请求,需要传入一个json字符串
  • 上传文件
    @Test
    public void testUpload1() throws IOException {
        String api = "/api/files/1";
        String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
        HttpPost httpPost = new HttpPost(url);
        File file = new File("C:/Users/hetiantian/Desktop/学习/docker_practice.pdf");
        FileBody fileBody = new FileBody(file);
        MultipartEntityBuilder builder = MultipartEntityBuilder.create();
        builder.setMode(HttpMultipartMode.BROWSER_COMPATIBLE);
        builder.addPart("file", fileBody);  //addPart上传文件
        HttpEntity entity = builder.build();
        httpPost.setEntity(entity);
        CloseableHttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(httpPost);
        System.out.println(EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity()));
    }
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    通过addPart上传文件

DELETE请求:

@Test
public void testDelete() throws IOException {
    String api = "/api/user/12";
    String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
    HttpDelete httpDelete = new HttpDelete(url);
    CloseableHttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(httpDelete);
    System.out.println(EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity()));
}
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请求的取消:

@Test
public void testCancel() throws IOException {
    String api = "/api/files/1";
    String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
    HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet(url);
    httpGet.setConfig(requestConfig);  //设置超时时间
    //测试连接的取消

    long begin = System.currentTimeMillis();
    CloseableHttpResponse response = httpClient.execute(httpGet);
    while (true) {
        if (System.currentTimeMillis() - begin > 1000) {
          httpGet.abort();
          System.out.println("task canceled");
          break;
      }
    }

    System.out.println(EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity()));
}
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调用abort方法取消请求 执行结果:

task canceled
cost 8098 msc
Disconnected from the target VM, address: '127.0.0.1:60549', transport: 'socket'

java.net.SocketException: socket closed...【省略】
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OkHttp使用

使用OkHttp发送请求主要分为一下几步骤:

  • 创建OkHttpClient对象
  • 创建Request对象
  • 将Request 对象封装为Call
  • 通过Call 来执行同步或异步请求,调用execute方法同步执行,调用enqueue方法异步执行

创建连接:

private OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient();
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GET请求:

@Test
public void testGet() throws IOException {
    String api = "/api/files/1";
    String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
            .url(url)
            .get() 
            .build();
    final Call call = client.newCall(request);
    Response response = call.execute();
    System.out.println(response.body().string());
}
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PUT请求:

@Test
public void testPut() throws IOException {
    String api = "/api/user";
    String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
    //请求参数
    UserVO userVO = UserVO.builder().name("h2t").id(11L).build();
    RequestBody requestBody = RequestBody.create(MediaType.parse("application/json; charset=utf-8"),
    JSONObject.toJSONString(userVO));
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
            .url(url)
            .put(requestBody)
            .build();
    final Call call = client.newCall(request);
    Response response = call.execute();
    System.out.println(response.body().string());
}
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POST请求:

  • 添加对象

    @Test
    public void testPost() throws IOException {
        String api = "/api/user";
        String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
        //请求参数
        JSONObject json = new JSONObject();
        json.put("name", "hetiantian");
        RequestBody requestBody = RequestBody.create(MediaType.parse("application/json; charset=utf-8"),     String.valueOf(json));
        Request request = new Request.Builder()
                .url(url)
                .post(requestBody) //post请求
               .build();
        final Call call = client.newCall(request);
        Response response = call.execute();
        System.out.println(response.body().string());
    }
    复制代码
  • 上传文件

    @Test
    public void testUpload() throws IOException {
        String api = "/api/files/1";
        String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
        RequestBody requestBody = new MultipartBody.Builder()
                .setType(MultipartBody.FORM)
                .addFormDataPart("file", "docker_practice.pdf",
                        RequestBody.create(MediaType.parse("multipart/form-data"),
                                new File("C:/Users/hetiantian/Desktop/学习/docker_practice.pdf")))
                .build();
        Request request = new Request.Builder()
                .url(url)
                .post(requestBody)  //默认为GET请求,可以不写
                .build();
        final Call call = client.newCall(request);
        Response response = call.execute();
        System.out.println(response.body().string());
    }
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    通过addFormDataPart方法模拟表单方式上传文件

DELETE请求:

@Test
public void testDelete() throws IOException {
  String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
  //请求参数
  Request request = new Request.Builder()
          .url(url)
          .delete()
          .build();
  final Call call = client.newCall(request);
  Response response = call.execute();
  System.out.println(response.body().string());
}
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请求的取消:

@Test
public void testCancelSysnc() throws IOException {
    String api = "/api/files/1";
    String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
    Request request = new Request.Builder()
            .url(url)
            .get()  
            .build();
    final Call call = client.newCall(request);
    Response response = call.execute();
    long start = System.currentTimeMillis();
    //测试连接的取消
    while (true) {
         //1分钟获取不到结果就取消请求
        if (System.currentTimeMillis() - start > 1000) {
            call.cancel();
            System.out.println("task canceled");
            break;
        }
    }

    System.out.println(response.body().string());
}
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调用cancel方法进行取消 测试结果:

task canceled
cost 9110 msc

java.net.SocketException: socket closed...【省略】
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小结
  • OkHttp使用build模式创建对象来的更简洁一些,并且使用.post/.delete/.put/.get方法表示请求类型,不需要像HttpClient创建HttpGet、HttpPost等这些方法来创建请求类型
  • 依赖包上,如果HttpClient需要发送异步请求、实现文件上传,需要额外的引入异步请求依赖
     <!---文件上传-->
     <dependency>
         <groupId>org.apache.httpcomponents</groupId>
         <artifactId>httpmime</artifactId>
         <version>4.5.3</version>
     </dependency>
     <!--异步请求-->
     <dependency>
         <groupId>org.apache.httpcomponents</groupId>
         <artifactId>httpasyncclient</artifactId>
         <version>4.5.3</version>
     </dependency>
    复制代码
  • 请求的取消,HttpClient使用abort方法,OkHttp使用cancel方法,都挺简单的,如果使用的是异步client,则在抛出异常时调用取消请求的方法即可

超时设置

HttpClient超时设置:
在HttpClient4.3+版本以上,超时设置通过RequestConfig进行设置

private CloseableHttpClient httpClient = HttpClientBuilder.create().build();
private RequestConfig requestConfig =  RequestConfig.custom()
        .setSocketTimeout(60 * 1000)
        .setConnectTimeout(60 * 1000).build();
String api = "/api/files/1";
String url = String.format("%s%s", BASE_URL, api);
HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet(url);
httpGet.setConfig(requestConfig);  //设置超时时间
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超时时间是设置在请求类型HttpGet上,而不是HttpClient上

OkHttp超时设置:
直接在OkHttp上进行设置

private OkHttpClient client = new OkHttpClient.Builder()
        .connectTimeout(60, TimeUnit.SECONDS)//设置连接超时时间
        .readTimeout(60, TimeUnit.SECONDS)//设置读取超时时间
        .build();
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小结:
如果client是单例模式,HttpClient在设置超时方面来的更灵活,针对不同请求类型设置不同的超时时间,OkHttp一旦设置了超时时间,所有请求类型的超时时间也就确定

HttpClient和OkHttp性能比较

测试环境:

  • CPU 六核
  • 内存 8G
  • windows10

每种测试用例都测试五次,排除偶然性

client连接为单例:

client连接不为单例:
单例模式下,HttpClient的响应速度要更快一些,单位为毫秒,性能差异相差不大 非单例模式下,OkHttp的性能更好,HttpClient创建连接比较耗时,因为多数情况下这些资源都会写成单例模式,因此图一的测试结果更具有参考价值

总结

OkHttp和HttpClient在性能和使用上不分伯仲,根据实际业务选择即可
最后附:示例代码,欢迎forkstar*
好久没有对外输出文章了

主要是写的前两篇没有人看,受打击了,急需网友的肯定【点赞呀