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一文彻底搞懂Android View的绘制流程

前言

成为一名优秀的Android开发,需要一份完备的知识体系,在这里,让我们一起成长为自己所想的那样~。

上一篇中我们讲到了Android的触摸事件传递机制,除此之外,关于Android View的绘制流程这一块也是View相关的核心知识点。我们都知道,PhoneWindow是Android系统中最基本的窗口系统,每个Activity会创建一个。同时,PhoneWindow也是Activity和View系统交互的接口。DecorView本质上是一个FrameLayout,是Activity中所有View的祖先。

一、开始:DecorView被加载到Window中

从Activity的startActivity开始,最终调用到ActivityThread的handleLaunchActivity方法来创建Activity,相关核心代码如下:

private void handleLaunchActivity(ActivityClientRecord r, Intent customIntent) {

    ....
    // 创建Activity,会调用Activity的onCreate方法
    // 从而完成DecorView的创建
    Activity a = performLaunchActivity(r, customIntent);
    if (a != null) {
        r.createdConfig = new Configuration(mConfiguration);
        Bundle oldState = r.state;
        handleResumeActivity(r.tolen, false, r.isForward, !r.activity..mFinished && !r.startsNotResumed);
    }
}

final void handleResumeActivity(IBinder token, boolean clearHide, boolean isForward, boolean reallyResume) {
    unscheduleGcIdler();
    mSomeActivitiesChanged = true;
    // 调用Activity的onResume方法
    ActivityClientRecord r = performResumeActivity(token, clearHide);
    if (r != null) {
        final Activity a = r.activity;
        ...
        if (r.window == null &&& !a.mFinished && willBeVisible) {
            r.window = r.activity.getWindow();
            // 得到DecorView
            View decor = r.window.getDecorView();
            decor.setVisibility(View.INVISIBLE);
            // 得到了WindowManager,WindowManager是一个接口
            // 并且继承了接口ViewManager
            ViewManager wm = a.getWindowManager();
            WindowManager.LayoutParams l = r.window.getAttributes();
            a.mDecor = decor;
            l.type = WindowManager.LayoutParams.TYPE_BASE_APPLICATION;
            l.softInputMode |= forwardBit;
            if (a.mVisibleFromClient) {
                a.mWindowAdded = true;
                // WindowManager的实现类是WindowManagerImpl,
                // 所以实际调用的是WindowManagerImpl的addView方法
                wm.addView(decor, l);
            }
        }
    }
}

public final class WindowManagerImpl implements WindowManager {
    private final WindowManagerGlobal mGlobal = WindowManagerGlobal.getInstance();
    ...
    
    @Override
    public void addView(@NonNull View view, @NonNull ViewGroup.LayoutParams params) {
        applyDefaultToken(params);
        mGlobal.addView(view, params, mDisplay, mParentWindow);
    }
    ...
}
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在了解View绘制的整体流程之前,我们必须先了解下ViewRoot和DecorView的概念。ViewRoot对应于ViewRootImpl类,它是连接WindowManager和DecorView的纽带,View的三大流程均是通过ViewRoot来完成的。在ActivityThread中,当Activity对象被创建完毕后,会将DecorView添加到Window中,同时会创建ViewRootImpl对象,并将ViewRootImpl对象和DecorView建立关联,相关源码如下所示:

// WindowManagerGlobal的addView方法
public void addView(View view, ViewGroup.LayoutParams params, Display display, Window parentWindow) {
    ...
    ViewRootImpl root;
    View pannelParentView = null;
    synchronized (mLock) {
        ...
        // 创建ViewRootImpl实例
        root = new ViewRootImpl(view..getContext(), display);
        view.setLayoutParams(wparams);
        mViews.add(view);
        mRoots.add(root);
        mParams.add(wparams);
    }
    try {
        // 把DecorView加载到Window中
        root.setView(view, wparams, panelParentView);
    } catch (RuntimeException e) {
        synchronized (mLock) {
            final int index = findViewLocked(view, false);
            if (index >= 0) {
                removeViewLocked(index, true);
            }
        }
        throw e;
    }
}
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二、了解绘制的整体流程

绘制会从根视图ViewRoot的performTraversals()方法开始,从上到下遍历整个视图树,每个View控件负责绘制自己,而ViewGroup还需要负责通知自己的子View进行绘制操作。performTraversals()的核心代码如下。

private void performTraversals() {
    ...
    int childWidthMeasureSpec = getRootMeasureSpec(mWidth, lp.width);
    int childHeightMeasureSpec = getRootMeasureSpec(mHeight, lp.height);
    ...
    //执行测量流程
    performMeasure(childWidthMeasureSpec, childHeightMeasureSpec);
    ...
    //执行布局流程
    performLayout(lp, desiredWindowWidth, desiredWindowHeight);
    ...
    //执行绘制流程
    performDraw();
}
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performTraversals的大致工作流程图如下所示:

image

显示不出来的可点击这里查看

注意:

  • preformLayout和performDraw的传递流程和performMeasure是类似的,唯一不同的是,performDraw的传递过程是在draw方法中通过dispatchDraw来实现的,不过这并没有本质区别。

  • 获取content:

    ViewGroup content = (ViewGroup)findViewById(android.R.id.content);

  • 获取设置的View:

    content.getChildAt(0);

三、理解MeasureSpec

1.MeasureSpec源码解析

MeasureSpec表示的是一个32位的整形值,它的高2位表示测量模式SpecMode,低30位表示某种测量模式下的规格大小SpecSize。MeasureSpec是View类的一个静态内部类,用来说明应该如何测量这个View。MeasureSpec的核心代码如下。

public static class MeasureSpec {
    private static final int MODE_SHIFT = 30;
    private static final int MODE_MASK = 0X3 << MODE_SHIFT;
    
    // 不指定测量模式, 父视图没有限制子视图的大小,子视图可以是想要
    // 的任何尺寸,通常用于系统内部,应用开发中很少用到。
    public static final int UNSPECIFIED = 0 << MODE_SHIFT;
    
    // 精确测量模式,视图宽高指定为match_parent或具体数值时生效,
    // 表示父视图已经决定了子视图的精确大小,这种模式下View的测量
    // 值就是SpecSize的值。
    public static final int EXACTLY = 1 << MODE_SHIFT;
    
    // 最大值测量模式,当视图的宽高指定为wrap_content时生效,此时
    // 子视图的尺寸可以是不超过父视图允许的最大尺寸的任何尺寸。
    public static final int AT_MOST = 2 << MODE_SHIFT;
    
    // 根据指定的大小和模式创建一个MeasureSpec
    public static int makeMeasureSpec(int size, int mode) {
        if (sUseBrokenMakeMeasureSpec) {
            return size + mode;
        } else {
            return (size & ~MODE_MASK) | (mode & MODE_MASK);
        }
    }
    
    // 微调某个MeasureSpec的大小
    static int adjust(int measureSpec, int delta) {
        final int mode = getMode(measureSpec);
        if (mode == UNSPECIFIED) {
            // No need to adjust size for UNSPECIFIED mode.
            return make MeasureSpec(0, UNSPECIFIED);
        }
        int size = getSize(measureSpec) + delta;
        if (size < 0) {
            size = 0;
        }
        return makeMeasureSpec(size, mode);
    }
}
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MeasureSpec通过将SpecMode和SpecSize打包成一个int值来避免过多的对象内存分配,为了方便操作,其提供了打包和解包的方法,打包方法为上述源码中的makeMeasureSpec,解包方法源码如下:

public static int getMode(int measureSpec) {
    return (measureSpec & MODE_MASK);
}

public static int getSize(int measureSpec) {
    return (measureSpec & ~MODE_MASK);
}
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2.DecorView的MeasureSpec的创建过程:
//desiredWindowWidth和desiredWindowHeight是屏幕的尺寸
childWidthMeasureSpec = getRootMeasureSpec(desiredWindowWidth, lp.width);
childHeightMeasureSpec = getRootMeasureSpec(desiredWindowHeight, lp.height);
performMeasure(childWidthMeasureSpec, childHeightMeasureSpec);

private static int getRootMeaureSpec(int windowSize, int rootDimension) {
    int measureSpec;
    switch (rootDimension) {
        case ViewGroup.LayoutParams.MATRCH_PARENT:
            // Window can't resize. Force root view to be windowSize.
            measureSpec = MeasureSpec.makeMeasureSpec(windowSize, MeasureSpec.EXACTLY);
            break;
        case ViewGroup.LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT:
            // Window can resize. Set max size for root view.
            measureSpec = MeasureSpec.makeMeasureSpec(windowSize, MeasureSpec.AT_MOST);
            break
        default:
            // Window wants to be an exact size. Force root view to be that size.
            measureSpec = MeasureSpec.makeMeasureSpec(rootDimension, MeasureSpec.EXACTLY);
            break;
    }
    return measureSpec;
}
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3.子元素的MeasureSpec的创建过程
// ViewGroup的measureChildWithMargins方法
protected void measureChildWithMargins(View child,
int parentWidthMeasureSpec, int widthUsed,
int parentHeightMeasureSpec, int heightUsed) {
    final MarginLayoutParams lp = (MarginLayoutParams) child.getLayoutParams();
    
    // 子元素的MeasureSpec的创建与父容器的MeasureSpec和子元素本身
    // 的LayoutParams有关,此外还和View的margin及padding有关
    final int childWidthMeasureSpec = getChildMeasureSpec(
    parentWidthMeasureSpec,
    mPaddingLeft + mPaddingRight + lp.leftMargin + lp.rightMargin + widthUsed, 
    lp.width);
    
    final int childHeightMeasureSpec = getChildMeasureSpec(
    parentHeightMeasureSpec,
    mPaddingTop + mPaddingBottom + lp.topMargin + lp.bottomMargin + heightUsed, 
    lp.height);
    
    child..measure(childWidthMeasureSpec, childHeightMeasureSpec);
}

public static int getChildMeasureSpec(int spec, int padding, int childDimesion) {
    int specMode = MeasureSpec.getMode(spec);
    int specSize = MeasureSpec.getSize(spec);
    
    // padding是指父容器中已占用的空间大小,因此子元素可用的
    // 大小为父容器的尺寸减去padding
    int size = Math.max(0, specSize - padding);
    
    int resultSize = 0;
    int resultMode = 0;
    
    switch (sepcMode) {
        // Parent has imposed an exact size on us
        case MeasureSpec.EXACTLY:
            if (childDimension >= 0) {
                resultSize = childDimension;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.EXACTLY;
            } else if (childDimension == LayoutParams.MATCH_PARENT) {
                // Child wants to be our size. So be it.
                resultSize = size;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.EXACTLY;
            } else if (childDimesion == LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT) {
                // Child wants to determine its own size. It can't be
                // bigger than us.
                resultSize = size;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.AT_MOST;
            }
            break;
        
        // Parent has imposed a maximum size on us 
        case MeasureSpec.AT_MOST:
            if (childDimension >= 0) {
                // Child wants a specific size... so be it
                resultSize = childDimension;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.EXACTLY;
            } else if (childDimension == LayoutParams.MATCH_PARENT) {
                // Child wants to be our size, but our size is not fixed.
                // Constrain child to not be bigger than us.
                resultSize = size;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.AT_MOST;
            } else if (childDimension == LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT) {
                // Child wants to determine its own size. It can't be
                // bigger than us.
                resultSize = size;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.AT_MOST;
            }
            break;
            
        // Parent asked to see how big we want to be
        case MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED:
            if (childDimension >= 0) {
                // Child wants a specific size... let him have it
                resultSize = childDimension;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.EXACTLY;
            } else if (childDimension == LayoutParams.MATCH_PARENT) {
                // Child wants to be our size... find out how big it should be
                resultSize = 0;
                resultMode = MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED;
            } else if (childDimension == LayoutParams.WRAP_CONTENT) {
                // Child wants to determine its own size....
                // find out how big it should be
                resultSize = 0;
                resultMode == MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED;
            }
            break;
        }
    return MeasureSpec.makeMeasureSpec(resultSize, resultMode);
}
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普通View的MeasureSpec的创建规则如下:

image

注意:UNSPECIFIED模式主要用于系统内部多次Measure的情形,一般不需关注。

结论:对于DecorView而言,它的MeasureSpec由窗口尺寸和其自身的LayoutParams共同决定;对于普通的View,它的MeasureSpec由父视图的MeasureSpec和其自身的LayoutParams共同决定。

四、View绘制流程之Measure

1.Measure的基本流程

由前面的分析可知,页面的测量流程是从performMeasure方法开始的,相关的核心代码流程如下。

private void perormMeasure(int childWidthMeasureSpec, int childHeightMeasureSpec) {
    ...
    // 具体的测量操作分发给ViewGroup
    mView.measure(childWidthMeasureSpec, childHeightMeasureSpec);
    ...
}

// 在ViewGroup中的measureChildren()方法中遍历测量ViewGroup中所有的View
protected void measureChildren(int widthMeasureSpec, int heightMeasureSpec) {
    final int size = mChildrenCount;
    final View[] children = mChildren;
    for (int i = 0; i < size; ++i) {
        final View child = children[i];
        // 当View的可见性处于GONE状态时,不对其进行测量
        if ((child.mViewFlags & VISIBILITY_MASK) != GONE) {
            measureChild(child, widthMeasureSpec, heightMeasureSpec);
        }
    }
}

// 测量某个指定的View
protected void measureChild(View child, int parentWidthMeasureSpec, int parentHeightMeasureSpec) {
    final LayoutParams lp = child.getLayoutParams();
    
    // 根据父容器的MeasureSpec和子View的LayoutParams等信息计算
    // 子View的MeasureSpec
    final int childWidthMeasureSpec = getChildMeasureSpec(parentWidthMeasureSpec, mPaddingLeft + mPaddingRight, lp.width);
    final int childHeightMeasureSpec = getChildMeasureSpec(parentHeightMeasureSpec, mPaddingTop + mPaddingBottom, lp.height);
    child.measure(childWidthMeasureSpec, childHeightMeasureSpec);
}

// View的measure方法
public final void measure(int widthMeasureSpec, int heightMeasureSpec) {
    ...
    // ViewGroup没有定义测量的具体过程,因为ViewGroup是一个
    // 抽象类,其测量过程的onMeasure方法需要各个子类去实现
    onMeasure(widthMeasureSpec, heightMeasureSpec);
    ...
}

// 不同的ViewGroup子类有不同的布局特性,这导致它们的测量细节各不相同,如果需要自定义测量过程,则子类可以重写这个方法
protected void onMeasure(int widthMeasureSpec, int heightMeasureSpec) {
    // setMeasureDimension方法用于设置View的测量宽高
    setMeasureDimension(getDefaultSize(getSuggestedMinimumWidth(), widthMeasureSpec), 
    getDefaultSize(getSuggestedMinimumHeight(), heightMeasureSpec));
}

// 如果View没有重写onMeasure方法,则会默认调用getDefaultSize来获得View的宽高
public static int getDefaultSize(int size, int measureSpec) {
    int result = size;
    int specMode = MeasureSpec.getMode(measureSpec);
    int specSize = MeasureSpec.getSize(measureSpec);
    
    switch (specMode) {
        case MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED:
            result = size;
            break;
        case MeasureSpec.AT_MOST:
        case MeasureSpec.EXACTLY:
            result = sepcSize;
            break;
    }
    return result;
}
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2.对getSuggestMinimumWidth的分析
protected int getSuggestedMinimumWidth() {
    return (mBackground == null) ? mMinWidth : max(mMinWidth, mBackground.getMinmumWidth());
}

protected int getSuggestedMinimumHeight() {
    return (mBackground == null) ? mMinHeight : max(mMinHeight, mBackground.getMinimumHeight());
}

public int getMinimumWidth() {
    final int intrinsicWidth = getIntrinsicWidth();
    return intrinsicWidth > 0 ? intrinsicWidth : 0;
}
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如果View没有设置背景,那么返回android:minWidth这个属性所指定的值,这个值可以为0;如果View设置了背景,则返回android:minWidth和背景的最小宽度这两者中的最大值。

3.自定义View时手动处理wrap_content时的情形

直接继承View的控件需要重写onMeasure方法并设置wrap_content时的自身大小,否则在布局中使用wrap_content就相当于使用match_parent。解决方式如下:

protected void onMeasure(int widthMeasureSpec, 
int height MeasureSpec) {
    super.onMeasure(widthMeasureSpec, heightMeasureSpec);
    int widthSpecMode = MeasureSpec.getMode(widthMeasureSpec);
    int widtuhSpecSize = MeasureSpec.getSize(widthMeasureSpec);
    int heightSpecMode = MeasureSpec.getMode(heightMeasureSpec);
    // 在wrap_content的情况下指定内部宽/高(mWidth和mHeight)
    int heightSpecSize = MeasureSpec.AT_MOST && heightSpecMode == MeasureSpec.AT_MOST) {
        setMeasuredDimension(mWidth, mHeight);
    } else if (widthSpecMode == MeasureSpec.AT_MOST) {
        setMeasureDimension(mWidth, heightSpecSize);
    } else if (heightSpecMode == MeasureSpec.AT_MOST) {
        setMeasureDimension(widthSpecSize, mHeight);
    }
}
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4.LinearLayout的onMeasure方法实现解析
protected void onMeasure(int widthMeasureSpec, int hegithMeasureSpec) {
    if (mOrientation == VERTICAL) {
        measureVertical(widthMeasureSpec, heightMeasureSpec);
    } else {
        measureHorizontal(widthMeasureSpec, heightMeasureSpec);
    }
}

// measureVertical核心源码
// See how tall everyone is. Also remember max width.
for (int i = 0; i < count; ++i) {
    final View child = getVirtualChildAt(i);
    ...
    // Determine how big this child would like to be. If this or 
    // previous children have given a weight, then we allow it to 
    // use all available space (and we will shrink things later 
    // if need)
    measureChildBeforeLayout(
            child, i, widthMeasureSpec, 0, heightMeasureSpec,
            totalWeight == 0 ? mTotalLength : 0);
            
    if (oldHeight != Integer.MIN_VALUE) {
        lp.height = oldHeight;
    }
    
    final int childHeight = child.getMeasuredHeight();
    final int totalLength = mTotalLength;
    mTotalLength = Math.max(totalLength, totalLength + childHeight + lp.topMargin + 
    lp.bottomMargin + getNextLocationOffset(child));
}
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系统会遍历子元素并对每个子元素执行measureChildBeforeLayout方法,这个方法内部会调用子元素的measure方法,这样各个子元素就开始依次进入measure过程,并且系统会通过mTotalLength这个变量来存储LinearLayout在竖直方向的初步高度。每测量一个子元素,mTotalLength就会增加,增加的部分主要包括了子元素的高度以及子元素在竖直方向上的margin等。

// LinearLayout测量自己大小的核心源码
// Add in our padding
mTotalLength += mPaddingTop + mPaddingBottom;
int heightSize = mTotalLength;
// Check against our minimum height
heightSize = Math.max(heightSize, getSuggestedMinimumHeight());
// Reconcile our calculated size with the heightMeasureSpec
int heightSizeAndState = resolveSizeAndState(heightSize, heightMeasureSpec, 0);
heightSize = heightSizeAndState & MEASURED_SIZE_MASK;
...
setMeasuredDimension(resolveSizeAndSize(maxWidth, widthMeasureSpec, childState),
heightSizeAndState);

public static int resolveSizeAndState(int size, int measureSpec, int childMeasuredState) {
    int result = size;
    int specMode = MeasureSpec.getMode(measureSpec);
    int specSize = MeasureSpec.getSize(measureSpec);
    switch (specMode) {
        case MeasureSpec.UNSPECIFIED:
            result = size;
            break;
        case MeasureSpec.AT_MOST:
            // 高度不能超过父容器的剩余空间
            if (specSize < size) {
                result = specSize | MEASURED_STATE_TOO_SMALL;
            } else {
                result = size;
            }
            break;
        case MeasureSpec.EXACTLY:
            result = specSize;
            break;
    }
    return result | (childMeasuredState & MEASURED_STATE_MASK);
}
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5.在Activity中获取某个View的宽高

由于View的measure过程和Activity的生命周期方法不是同步执行的,如果View还没有测量完毕,那么获得的宽/高就是0。所以在onCreate、onStart、onResume中均无法正确得到某个View的宽高信息。解决方式如下:

  • Activity/View#onWindowFocusChanged

    // 此时View已经初始化完毕 // 当Activity的窗口得到焦点和失去焦点时均会被调用一次 // 如果频繁地进行onResume和onPause,那么onWindowFocusChanged也会被频繁地调用 public void onWindowFocusChanged(boolean hasFocus) { super.onWindowFocusChanged(hasFocus); if (hasFocus) { int width = view.getMeasureWidth(); int height = view.getMeasuredHeight(); } }

  • view.post(runnable)

    // 通过post可以将一个runnable投递到消息队列的尾部,// 然后等待Looper调用次runnable的时候,View也已经初 // 始化好了 protected void onStart() { super.onStart(); view.post(new Runnable() {

          @Override
          public void run() {
              int width = view.getMeasuredWidth();
              int height = view.getMeasuredHeight();
          }
      });
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    }

  • ViewTreeObserver

    // 当View树的状态发生改变或者View树内部的View的可见// 性发生改变时,onGlobalLayout方法将被回调 protected void onStart() { super.onStart();

      ViewTreeObserver observer = view.getViewTreeObserver();
      observer.addOnGlobalLayoutListener(new OnGlobalLayoutListener() {
          
          @SuppressWarnings("deprecation")
          @Override
          public void onGlobalLayout() {
              view.getViewTreeObserver().removeGlobalOnLayoutListener(this);
              int width = view.getMeasuredWidth();
              int height = view.getMeasuredHeight();
          }
      });
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    }

  • View.measure(int widthMeasureSpec, int heightMeasureSpec)

五、View的绘制流程之Layout

1.Layout的基本流程
// ViewRootImpl.java
private void performLayout(WindowManager.LayoutParams lp, int desiredWindowWidth, int desiredWindowHeight) {
    ...
    host.layout(0, 0, host.getMeasuredWidth(), host.getMeasuredHeight());
    ...
}

// View.java
public void layout(int l, int t, int r, int b) {
    ...
    // 通过setFrame方法来设定View的四个顶点的位置,即View在父容器中的位置
    boolean changed = isLayoutModeOptical(mParent) ? 
    set OpticalFrame(l, t, r, b) : setFrame(l, t, r, b);
    
    ...
    onLayout(changed, l, t, r, b);
    ...
}

// 空方法,子类如果是ViewGroup类型,则重写这个方法,实现ViewGroup
// 中所有View控件布局流程
protected void onLayout(boolean changed, int left, int top, int right, int bottom) {
    
}
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2.LinearLayout的onLayout方法实现解析
protected void onlayout(boolean changed, int l, int t, int r, int b) {
    if (mOrientation == VERTICAL) {
        layoutVertical(l, t, r, b);
    } else {
        layoutHorizontal(l,)
    }
}

// layoutVertical核心源码
void layoutVertical(int left, int top, int right, int bottom) {
    ...
    final int count = getVirtualChildCount();
    for (int i = 0; i < count; i++) {
        final View child = getVirtualChildAt(i);
        if (child == null) {
            childTop += measureNullChild(i);
        } else if (child.getVisibility() != GONE) {
            final int childWidth = child.getMeasureWidth();
            final int childHeight = child.getMeasuredHeight();
            
            final LinearLayout.LayoutParams lp = 
                    (LinearLayout.LayoutParams) child.getLayoutParams();
            ...
            if (hasDividerBeforeChildAt(i)) {
                childTop += mDividerHeight;
            }
            
            childTop += lp.topMargin;
            // 为子元素确定对应的位置
            setChildFrame(child, childLeft, childTop + getLocationOffset(child), childWidth, childHeight);
            // childTop会逐渐增大,意味着后面的子元素会被
            // 放置在靠下的位置
            childTop += childHeight + lp.bottomMargin + getNextLocationOffset(child);
            
            i += getChildrenSkipCount(child,i)
        }
    }
}

private void setChildFrame(View child, int left, int top, int width, int height) {
    child.layout(left, top, left + width, top + height);
}
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注意:在View的默认实现中,View的测量宽/高和最终宽/高是相等的,只不过测量宽/高形成于View的measure过程,而最终宽/高形成于View的layout过程,即两者的赋值时机不同,测量宽/高的赋值时机稍微早一些。在一些特殊的情况下则两者不相等:

  • 重写View的layout方法,使最终宽度总是比测量宽/高大100px

    public void layout(int l, int t, int r, int b) { super.layout(l, t, r + 100, b + 100); }

  • View需要多长measure才能确定自己的测量宽/高,在前几次测量的过程中,其得出的测量宽/高有可能和最终宽/高不一致,但最终来说,测量宽/高还是和最终宽/高相同

六、View的绘制流程之Draw

1.Draw的基本流程
private void performDraw() {
    ...
    draw(fullRefrawNeeded);
    ...
}

private void draw(boolean fullRedrawNeeded) {
    ...
    if (!drawSoftware(surface, mAttachInfo, xOffest, yOffset, 
    scalingRequired, dirty)) {
        return;
    }
    ...
}

private boolean drawSoftware(Surface surface, AttachInfo attachInfo, 
int xoff, int yoff, boolean scallingRequired, Rect dirty) {
    ...
    mView.draw(canvas);
    ...
}

// 绘制基本上可以分为六个步骤
public void draw(Canvas canvas) {
    ...
    // 步骤一:绘制View的背景
    drawBackground(canvas);
    
    ...
    // 步骤二:如果需要的话,保持canvas的图层,为fading做准备
    saveCount = canvas.getSaveCount();
    ...
    canvas.saveLayer(left, top, right, top + length, null, flags);
    
    ...
    // 步骤三:绘制View的内容
    onDraw(canvas);
    
    ...
    // 步骤四:绘制View的子View
    dispatchDraw(canvas);
    
    ...
    // 步骤五:如果需要的话,绘制View的fading边缘并恢复图层
    canvas.drawRect(left, top, right, top + length, p);
    ...
    canvas.restoreToCount(saveCount);
    
    ...
    // 步骤六:绘制View的装饰(例如滚动条等等)
    onDrawForeground(canvas)
}
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2.setWillNotDraw的作用
// 如果一个View不需要绘制任何内容,那么设置这个标记位为true以后,
// 系统会进行相应的优化。
public void setWillNotDraw(boolean willNotDraw) {
    setFlags(willNotDraw ? WILL_NOT_DRAW : 0, DRAW_MASK);
}
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  • 默认情况下,View没有启用这个优化标记位,但是ViewGroup会默认启用这个优化标记位。
  • 当我们的自定义控件继承于ViewGroup并且本身不具备绘制功能时,就可以开启这个标记位从而便于系统进行后续的优化。
  • 当明确知道一个ViewGroup需要通过onDraw来绘制内容时,我们需要显示地关闭WILL_NOT_DRAW这个标记位。

七、总结

View的绘制流程和事件分发机制都是Android开发中的核心知识点,也是自定义View高手的内功心法。对于一名优秀的Android开发来说,主流三方源码分析和Android核心源码分析可以说是必修课,下一篇,将会带领大家更进一步深入Android。

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参考链接:

1、Android开发艺术探索

2、Android进阶之光

3、Android高级进阶

4、Android应用层View绘制流程与源码分析

5、Android中View绘制流程浅析

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