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Flutter 入门路线图

本文整理自 Roadmap To Become A Flutter Developer,请参考原文阅读

本文是为那些渴望开始学习 flutter 的人们而准备的,这是一个适合初学者从所有必要资源中逐步学习的路线图。

什么是 flutter

Flutter 是 Google 的 UI 工具包,可通过单个代码库为移动设备,web 和桌面系统构建漂亮的,本机编译的应用程序。

下面两个视频很好地介绍了 flutter;

Introducing Flutter1

What's new in Flutter 20192

[1] https://youtu.be/fq4N0hgOWzU
[2] https://youtu.be/5VbAwhBBHsg

为什么是 flutter?

我们已经知道有很多框架可以提供跨平台功能,那么在这场激烈竞争中,是什么让 flutter 显得特别呢?

快速开发

Flutter 的热加载功能可帮助您快速轻松地进行实验,构建用户界面,添加功能并更快地修复错误。在 iOS 和 Android 的模拟器和硬件上体验亚秒级的重新加载时间,而不会丢失状态。

富有表现力的精美用户界面

Flutter 内置的精美 Material Design 和 Cupertino(iOS-flavor)小部件,丰富的运动 API,流畅的自然滚动以及对平台的了解,可为您的用户带来更多惊喜。

native 级别的性能

Flutter 的小部件结合了所有重要的平台差异,例如滚动,导航,图标和字体,以在 iOS 和 Android 上提供完整的 native 性能。

查看 Flutter 的功能

以下是全球开发人员构建的 Flutter 应用程序的展示。

Apps take flight with Flutter3

An open list of apps built with Flutter4

Flutter Awesome5

Start Flutter | Forever free, open source, and easy to use.6

[3]https://flutter.dev/showcase
[4]https://itsallwidgets.com/
[5]https://flutterawesome.com/
[6]https://startflutter.com/

首先要做什么?

Flutter 既快速又容易,如果您熟悉 Java 或任何面向对象的语言,那么很不错,但是我强烈建议您具备 Dart 的基本知识。

以下是一些可能对您有所帮助的视频。

Dart Programming for Flutter7

Dart Programming Tutorial - Full Course8

Introduction to Dart for Beginners9

Dart: Basics of Dart Part - 1/2 | Flutter10

[7]https://youtu.be/5rtujDjt50I?list=PLlxmoA0rQ-LyHW9voBdNo4gEEIh0SjG-q
[8]https://youtu.be/Ej_Pcr4uC2Q
[9]https://youtu.be/8F2uemqLwvE?list=PLJbE2Yu2zumDjfrfu8kisK9lQVcpMDDzZ
[10]https://youtu.be/DFRl4UyS7c8?list=PLR2qQy0Zxs_W4a6P70VYtzna7jwl3-lxI

对于那些不喜欢看视频的人,可以查看以下站点

Tutorials11

Dart Programming Tutorial12

Learn Dart In A Week With These Free Resources13

[11]https://dart.dev/tutorials
[12]https://www.tutorialspoint.com/dart_programming/index.htm
[13]https://hackernoon.com/learn-dart-in-a-week-with-these-free-resources-b892e5265220

是什么使 Dart 如此典型,为什么 flutter 会使用它?

为什么 Flutter 使用 Dart?

可以查看以下文章和视频

Why Flutter Uses Dart?14

视频:Why Flutter Uses Dart?15

[14]https://hackernoon.com/why-flutter-uses-dart-dd635a054ebf
[15]https://youtu.be/5F-6n_2XWR8

Flutter 底层是如何工作的?

由于 iOS 不允许动态编译,因此您的 Dart 代码会使用 AOT 直接编译为本地代码。

要了解更多信息,请在下面查看这些资源:

Technical overview16

How to Dart and Flutter Work Together?17

What's Revolutionary about Flutter18

How Flutter reners Widgets19

How is Flutter different for app development20

[16]https://flutter.dev/docs/resources/technical-overview
[17]https://youtu.be/iVYpeEd3Jes
[18]https://hackernoon.com/whats-revolutionary-about-flutter-946915b09514
[19]https://youtu.be/996ZgFRENMs
[20]https://youtu.be/l-YO9CmaSUM

Flutter快速且易于使用,现在让我们看看如何安装它。

如何安装Flutter?

这是开发人员文档的链接,您可以在其中找到在现有的操作系统中安装Flutter。

Install21

[21]https://flutter.dev/docs/get-started/install

解决安装过程中的问题

如果您在安装 flutter 时遇到任何问题,并且 flutter 无法正常工作,那么这就是出现了一些问题。

设置 flutter 路径时遇到麻烦-找不到flutter命令22

Flutter Doctor无法识别Android Studio flutter和dart插件,但已安装插件23

Flutter和Dart插件未在Flutter Doctor中安装警告24

安装 flutter 时的一些常见问题。25

[22]https://stackoverflow.com/questions/49268297/having-trouble-setting-flutter-path-flutter-commands-not-found
[23]https://github.com/flutter/flutter/issues/21881
[24]https://github.com/flutter/flutter/issues/11940
[25]https://github.com/flutter/flutter/wiki/Workarounds-for-common-issues

设置Flutter的编辑器

Set up an editor26

[26]https://flutter.dev/docs/get-started/editor

创建您的Flutter项目

通过以下命令创建 flutter 项目

flutter create <project-name>
复制代码

或者您可以使用IDE(Intellij,Android Studio等)

项目概况

当您创建 flutter 应用程序时,您会看到这些文件和文件夹,大多数代码是用 dart 编写在 lib 文件夹中,native 代码放在 android 和 ios 目录下。

Jay Tillu的一篇文章解释了该项目的结构。

Flutter Project Structure27

[27]https://dev.to/jay_tillu/flutter-project-structure-1lhe

运行你的第一个 App

Test drive28

或者你可以使用以下命令来运行您的第一个应用程序

flutter run
复制代码

当您启动第一个应用程序时,一定会感到很兴奋(从技术上说,这不是您的应用程序,代码已经在那里😜)。 我也很兴奋🎉。

创建flutter应用程序时,您会看到计数器应用程序已经有代码了。

运行代码时,您将看到此信息。这是一个简单的计数器应用程序,其中有一个FAB(FloatingActionButton)和 Text 来指示已按下 FAB 多少次。

[28]https://flutter.dev/docs/get-started/test-drive

flutter 中的 widget

如果看到代码,您将看到 StatefulWidget 和 StatelessWidget。在深入探讨之前,我们先来了解一下什么是 Widget。

Introduction to widget29

基本上,在 flutter 应用程序中看到的所有内容都是一个小部件。

我发现 What is a Widget in Flutter30 一文中的解释非常准确

Flutter小组还提供了一个YouTube播放列表(Widget of the week31),该列表仅讨论flutter中的Widget。

[29]https://flutter.dev/docs/development/ui/widgets-intro
[30]https://stackoverflow.com/questions/50958238/what-is-a-widget-in-flutter
[31]https://youtu.be/b_sQ9bMltGU?list=PLjxrf2q8roU23XGwz3Km7sQZFTdB996iG

什么是有状态和无状态小部件?

在 Stateless Widget 中,其所有属性都是不可变的,这意味着 StatelessWidget 永远不会自行重建(但可以从外部事件重建),而 StatefulWidget 可以。

Intro to Flutter - Stateful and Stateless Widgets, Widget Tree - Part One32

Flutter: Stateful vs Stateless Widget33

How to Create Stateless Widgets - Flutter Widgets 101 Ep. 134

How Stateful Widgets Are Used Best - Flutter Widgets 101 Ep. 235

Google's Flutter Tutorials | 6 - Stateless & Stateful Widgets | Android & iOS | Dart36

[32]https://youtu.be/-QRQIKtPTlI
[33]https://medium.com/flutter-community/flutter-stateful-vs-stateless-db325309deae
[34]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wE7khGHVkYY&feature=emb_title
[35]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AqCMFXEmf3w&feature=emb_title
[36]https://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLR2qQy0Zxs_UdqAcaipPR3CG1Ly57UlhV&v=VnWHOogtDk8&feature=emb_title

让我们创建第一个Flutter应用

Google已经提供了一个 Codelab,您可以从那里开始学习如何构建自己的第一个 Flutter 应用程序。

Write Your First Flutter App, part 137

Write Your First Flutter App, part 238

Flutter Tutorial Part 1: Build a Flutter app from scratch39

1.3 Flutter Hello World Tutorial: Create First Flutter Application: Flutter Dart Tutorial40

1.4 First Flutter Application using Dart: PART-2 Flutter Tutorial for Beginners using Dart41

[37]https://codelabs.developers.google.com/codelabs/first-flutter-app-pt1/#4
[38]https://codelabs.developers.google.com/codelabs/first-flutter-app-pt2/#0
[39]https://medium.com/aviabird/flutter-tutorial-how-to-build-an-app-from-scratch-b88d4e0e10d7
[40]https://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLlxmoA0rQ-Lw6tAs2fGFuXGP13-dWdKsB&v=dsyucuytW2k
[41]https://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLlxmoA0rQ-Lw6tAs2fGFuXGP13-dWdKsB&v=ycHX8QtV08c

如何在 Flutter 中创建 UI?

为了使 UI 更加流畅,您需要基本了解布局以及如何使用它们。

Layouts in Flutter42

Flutter layout Cheat Sheet43

[42]https://flutter.dev/docs/development/ui/layout
[43]https://medium.com/flutter-community/flutter-layout-cheat-sheet-5363348d037e

如何在您的应用中添加交互?

在 flutter 中,您不能只是分配一个值并留下它

例如

String value="Hello";
------------------------------
Text(value);
---SOMEWHERE IN THE CODE------
onTap(){
value="How are you?";
}
复制代码

如果您认为文本将要更改,那么您错了🙅‍♂️,您将不得不使用 setState()。

onTap(){
	setState({
		value="How are you?";
	});
}
复制代码

添加 setState() 将重建小部件并显示更改。

Adding interactivity to your Flutter app44

我建议您跟进有关开发的 Flutter 官方文档

Development45

flutter 中的所有内容都是小部件,您可以自行创建任何自定义小部件,但是已经有通过 flutter 定义的小部件。

Widget catalog46

[44]https://flutter.dev/docs/development/ui/interactive
[45]https://flutter.dev/docs/development
[46]https://flutter.dev/docs/development/ui/widgets

Flutter 中的 JSON 解析

JSON and serialization47

Parsing JSON in Flutter48

Parsing complex JSON in Flutter49

Working with APIs in Flutter50

Handling Network Calls like a Pro in Flutter51

Flutter - Build An App To Fetch Data Online Using HTTP GET | Android & iOS52

Testing, JSON serialization, and immutables (The Boring Flutter Development Show, Ep. 2)53

[47]https://flutter.dev/docs/development/data-and-backend/json
[48]https://medium.com/flutterdevs/parsing-complex-json-in-flutter-b7f991611d3e
[49]https://medium.com/flutter-community/parsing-complex-json-in-flutter-747c46655f51
[50]https://medium.com/flutter-community/working-with-apis-in-flutter-8745968103e9
[51]https://medium.com/flutter-community/handling-network-calls-like-a-pro-in-flutter-31bd30c86be1
[52]https://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLR2qQy0Zxs_UdqAcaipPR3CG1Ly57UlhV&v=aIJU68Phi1w
[53]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TiCA0CEePyE

在 Flutter 中使用数据库

SQLite

Persist data with SQLite54

Data Persistence with SQLite | Flutter55

4.1 Flutter SQFLite Database Tutorial: Implement SQLite database with example: Section Overview56

Moor (Room for Flutter) #1 – Tables & Queries – Fluent SQLite Database57

[54]https://flutter.dev/docs/cookbook/persistence/sqlite
[55]https://medium.com/flutterdevs/data-persistence-with-sqlite-flutter-47a6f67b973f
[56]https://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLDQl6gZtjvFu5l20K5KTEBLCjfRjHowLj&v=1BwjNEKD8g8
[57]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zpWsedYMczM

SharedPreferences

Shared preferences plugin58

Using SharedPreferences in Flutter59

Store key-value data on disk60

Making use of Shared Preferences, Flex Widgets and Dismissibles with Dart's Flutter framework61

[58]https://pub.dev/packages/shared_preferences
[59]https://medium.com/flutterdevs/using-sharedpreferences-in-flutter-251755f07127
[60]https://flutter.dev/docs/cookbook/persistence/key-value
[61]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IvrAAMQnj4k

使用Firebase

将 Firebase 添加到您的 Flutter 应用62

Firebase for Flutter63

Flutter - Firestore introduction64

[62]https://firebase.google.com/docs/flutter/setup
[63]https://codelabs.developers.google.com/codelabs/flutter-firebase/#0
[64]https://www.youtube.com/watch?list=PLgGjX33Qsw-Ha_8ks9im86sLIihimuYrr&v=LzEbpALmRlc

其他学习 Flutter 的资源

以下是其他开发人员和Flutter团队提供的一些资源:

Technical overview65

Resources to learn Flutter66

Free resources to learn and advance in Flutter67

Flutter Community68

My Favourite List of Flutter Resources69

awesome-flutter70

londonappbrewery/Flutter-Course-Resources71

A Searchable List of Flutter Resources72

FlutterDevs73

[65]https://flutter.dev/docs/resources/technical-overview
[66]https://medium.com/flutter-community/resources-to-learn-flutter-2ade7aa73305
[67]https://medium.com/flutter-community/free-resources-to-learn-and-advance-in-flutter-e07875ffc825
[68]https://medium.com/flutter-community
[69]https://medium.com/coding-with-flutter/my-favourite-list-of-flutter-resources-523adc611cbe
[70]https://github.com/Solido/awesome-flutter
[71]https://github.com/londonappbrewery/Flutter-Course-Resources
[72]https://flutterx.com/
[73]https://medium.com/flutterdevs

关于 Flutter 的问题

FAQ74

Answering Questions on Flutter App Development75

Flutter Vs. React Native: FAQs for Every Developer76

[74]https://flutter.dev/docs/resources/faq
[75]https://medium.com/@dev.n/answering-questions-on-flutter-app-development-6d50eb7223f3
[76]https://hackernoon.com/flutter-vs-react-native-faqs-for-every-developer-yjp329z

本文仅适用于初学者。