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微服务权限终极解决方案,Spring Cloud Gateway + Oauth2 实现统一认证和鉴权!

SpringBoot实战电商项目mall(35k+star)地址:github.com/macrozheng/…

摘要

最近发现了一个很好的微服务权限解决方案,可以通过认证服务进行统一认证,然后通过网关来统一校验认证和鉴权。此方案为目前最新方案,仅支持Spring Boot 2.2.0、Spring Cloud Hoxton 以上版本,本文将详细介绍该方案的实现,希望对大家有所帮助!

前置知识

我们将采用Nacos作为注册中心,Gateway作为网关,使用nimbus-jose-jwtJWT库操作JWT令牌,对这些技术不了解的朋友可以看下下面的文章。

应用架构

我们理想的解决方案应该是这样的,认证服务负责认证,网关负责校验认证和鉴权,其他API服务负责处理自己的业务逻辑。安全相关的逻辑只存在于认证服务和网关服务中,其他服务只是单纯地提供服务而没有任何安全相关逻辑。

相关服务划分:

  • micro-oauth2-gateway:网关服务,负责请求转发和鉴权功能,整合Spring Security+Oauth2;
  • micro-oauth2-auth:Oauth2认证服务,负责对登录用户进行认证,整合Spring Security+Oauth2;
  • micro-oauth2-api:受保护的API服务,用户鉴权通过后可以访问该服务,不整合Spring Security+Oauth2。

方案实现

下面介绍下这套解决方案的具体实现,依次搭建认证服务、网关服务和API服务。

micro-oauth2-auth

我们首先来搭建认证服务,它将作为Oauth2的认证服务使用,并且网关服务的鉴权功能也需要依赖它。

  • pom.xml中添加相关依赖,主要是Spring Security、Oauth2、JWT、Redis相关依赖;
<dependencies>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-security</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-oauth2</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>com.nimbusds</groupId>
        <artifactId>nimbus-jose-jwt</artifactId>
        <version>8.16</version>
    </dependency>
    <!-- redis -->
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-data-redis</artifactId>
    </dependency>
</dependencies>
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  • application.yml中添加相关配置,主要是Nacos和Redis相关配置;
server:
  port: 9401
spring:
  profiles:
    active: dev
  application:
    name: micro-oauth2-auth
  cloud:
    nacos:
      discovery:
        server-addr: localhost:8848
  jackson:
    date-format: yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ss
  redis:
    database: 0
    port: 6379
    host: localhost
    password: 
management:
  endpoints:
    web:
      exposure:
        include: "*"
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  • 使用keytool生成RSA证书jwt.jks,复制到resource目录下,在JDK的bin目录下使用如下命令即可;
keytool -genkey -alias jwt -keyalg RSA -keystore jwt.jks
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  • 创建UserServiceImpl类实现Spring Security的UserDetailsService接口,用于加载用户信息;
/**
 * 用户管理业务类
 * Created by macro on 2020/6/19.
 */
@Service
public class UserServiceImpl implements UserDetailsService {

    private List<UserDTO> userList;
    @Autowired
    private PasswordEncoder passwordEncoder;

    @PostConstruct
    public void initData() {
        String password = passwordEncoder.encode("123456");
        userList = new ArrayList<>();
        userList.add(new UserDTO(1L,"macro", password,1, CollUtil.toList("ADMIN")));
        userList.add(new UserDTO(2L,"andy", password,1, CollUtil.toList("TEST")));
    }

    @Override
    public UserDetails loadUserByUsername(String username) throws UsernameNotFoundException {
        List<UserDTO> findUserList = userList.stream().filter(item -> item.getUsername().equals(username)).collect(Collectors.toList());
        if (CollUtil.isEmpty(findUserList)) {
            throw new UsernameNotFoundException(MessageConstant.USERNAME_PASSWORD_ERROR);
        }
        SecurityUser securityUser = new SecurityUser(findUserList.get(0));
        if (!securityUser.isEnabled()) {
            throw new DisabledException(MessageConstant.ACCOUNT_DISABLED);
        } else if (!securityUser.isAccountNonLocked()) {
            throw new LockedException(MessageConstant.ACCOUNT_LOCKED);
        } else if (!securityUser.isAccountNonExpired()) {
            throw new AccountExpiredException(MessageConstant.ACCOUNT_EXPIRED);
        } else if (!securityUser.isCredentialsNonExpired()) {
            throw new CredentialsExpiredException(MessageConstant.CREDENTIALS_EXPIRED);
        }
        return securityUser;
    }

}
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  • 添加认证服务相关配置Oauth2ServerConfig,需要配置加载用户信息的服务UserServiceImpl及RSA的钥匙对KeyPair
/**
 * 认证服务器配置
 * Created by macro on 2020/6/19.
 */
@AllArgsConstructor
@Configuration
@EnableAuthorizationServer
public class Oauth2ServerConfig extends AuthorizationServerConfigurerAdapter {

    private final PasswordEncoder passwordEncoder;
    private final UserServiceImpl userDetailsService;
    private final AuthenticationManager authenticationManager;
    private final JwtTokenEnhancer jwtTokenEnhancer;

    @Override
    public void configure(ClientDetailsServiceConfigurer clients) throws Exception {
        clients.inMemory()
                .withClient("client-app")
                .secret(passwordEncoder.encode("123456"))
                .scopes("all")
                .authorizedGrantTypes("password", "refresh_token")
                .accessTokenValiditySeconds(3600)
                .refreshTokenValiditySeconds(86400);
    }

    @Override
    public void configure(AuthorizationServerEndpointsConfigurer endpoints) throws Exception {
        TokenEnhancerChain enhancerChain = new TokenEnhancerChain();
        List<TokenEnhancer> delegates = new ArrayList<>();
        delegates.add(jwtTokenEnhancer); 
        delegates.add(accessTokenConverter());
        enhancerChain.setTokenEnhancers(delegates); //配置JWT的内容增强器
        endpoints.authenticationManager(authenticationManager)
                .userDetailsService(userDetailsService) //配置加载用户信息的服务
                .accessTokenConverter(accessTokenConverter())
                .tokenEnhancer(enhancerChain);
    }

    @Override
    public void configure(AuthorizationServerSecurityConfigurer security) throws Exception {
        security.allowFormAuthenticationForClients();
    }

    @Bean
    public JwtAccessTokenConverter accessTokenConverter() {
        JwtAccessTokenConverter jwtAccessTokenConverter = new JwtAccessTokenConverter();
        jwtAccessTokenConverter.setKeyPair(keyPair());
        return jwtAccessTokenConverter;
    }

    @Bean
    public KeyPair keyPair() {
        //从classpath下的证书中获取秘钥对
        KeyStoreKeyFactory keyStoreKeyFactory = new KeyStoreKeyFactory(new ClassPathResource("jwt.jks"), "123456".toCharArray());
        return keyStoreKeyFactory.getKeyPair("jwt", "123456".toCharArray());
    }

}
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  • 如果你想往JWT中添加自定义信息的话,比如说登录用户的ID,可以自己实现TokenEnhancer接口;
/**
 * JWT内容增强器
 * Created by macro on 2020/6/19.
 */
@Component
public class JwtTokenEnhancer implements TokenEnhancer {
    @Override
    public OAuth2AccessToken enhance(OAuth2AccessToken accessToken, OAuth2Authentication authentication) {
        SecurityUser securityUser = (SecurityUser) authentication.getPrincipal();
        Map<String, Object> info = new HashMap<>();
        //把用户ID设置到JWT中
        info.put("id", securityUser.getId());
        ((DefaultOAuth2AccessToken) accessToken).setAdditionalInformation(info);
        return accessToken;
    }
}
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  • 由于我们的网关服务需要RSA的公钥来验证签名是否合法,所以认证服务需要有个接口把公钥暴露出来;
/**
 * 获取RSA公钥接口
 * Created by macro on 2020/6/19.
 */
@RestController
public class KeyPairController {

    @Autowired
    private KeyPair keyPair;

    @GetMapping("/rsa/publicKey")
    public Map<String, Object> getKey() {
        RSAPublicKey publicKey = (RSAPublicKey) keyPair.getPublic();
        RSAKey key = new RSAKey.Builder(publicKey).build();
        return new JWKSet(key).toJSONObject();
    }

}
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  • 不要忘了还需要配置Spring Security,允许获取公钥接口的访问;
/**
 * SpringSecurity配置
 * Created by macro on 2020/6/19.
 */
@Configuration
@EnableWebSecurity
public class WebSecurityConfig extends WebSecurityConfigurerAdapter {

    @Override
    protected void configure(HttpSecurity http) throws Exception {
        http.authorizeRequests()
                .requestMatchers(EndpointRequest.toAnyEndpoint()).permitAll()
                .antMatchers("/rsa/publicKey").permitAll()
                .anyRequest().authenticated();
    }

    @Bean
    @Override
    public AuthenticationManager authenticationManagerBean() throws Exception {
        return super.authenticationManagerBean();
    }

    @Bean
    public PasswordEncoder passwordEncoder() {
        return new BCryptPasswordEncoder();
    }

}
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  • 创建一个资源服务ResourceServiceImpl,初始化的时候把资源与角色匹配关系缓存到Redis中,方便网关服务进行鉴权的时候获取。
/**
 * 资源与角色匹配关系管理业务类
 * Created by macro on 2020/6/19.
 */
@Service
public class ResourceServiceImpl {

    private Map<String, List<String>> resourceRolesMap;
    @Autowired
    private RedisTemplate<String,Object> redisTemplate;

    @PostConstruct
    public void initData() {
        resourceRolesMap = new TreeMap<>();
        resourceRolesMap.put("/api/hello", CollUtil.toList("ADMIN"));
        resourceRolesMap.put("/api/user/currentUser", CollUtil.toList("ADMIN", "TEST"));
        redisTemplate.opsForHash().putAll(RedisConstant.RESOURCE_ROLES_MAP, resourceRolesMap);
    }
}
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micro-oauth2-gateway

接下来我们就可以搭建网关服务了,它将作为Oauth2的资源服务、客户端服务使用,对访问微服务的请求进行统一的校验认证和鉴权操作。

  • pom.xml中添加相关依赖,主要是Gateway、Oauth2和JWT相关依赖;
<dependencies>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-webflux</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-cloud-starter-gateway</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.security</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-security-config</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.security</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-security-oauth2-resource-server</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.security</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-security-oauth2-client</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.security</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-security-oauth2-jose</artifactId>
    </dependency>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>com.nimbusds</groupId>
        <artifactId>nimbus-jose-jwt</artifactId>
        <version>8.16</version>
    </dependency>
</dependencies>
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  • application.yml中添加相关配置,主要是路由规则的配置、Oauth2中RSA公钥的配置及路由白名单的配置;
server:
  port: 9201
spring:
  profiles:
    active: dev
  application:
    name: micro-oauth2-gateway
  cloud:
    nacos:
      discovery:
        server-addr: localhost:8848
    gateway:
      routes: #配置路由规则
        - id: oauth2-api-route
          uri: lb://micro-oauth2-api
          predicates:
            - Path=/api/**
          filters:
            - StripPrefix=1
        - id: oauth2-auth-route
          uri: lb://micro-oauth2-auth
          predicates:
            - Path=/auth/**
          filters:
            - StripPrefix=1
      discovery:
        locator:
          enabled: true #开启从注册中心动态创建路由的功能
          lower-case-service-id: true #使用小写服务名,默认是大写
  security:
    oauth2:
      resourceserver:
        jwt:
          jwk-set-uri: 'http://localhost:9401/rsa/publicKey' #配置RSA的公钥访问地址
  redis:
    database: 0
    port: 6379
    host: localhost
    password: 
secure:
  ignore:
    urls: #配置白名单路径
      - "/actuator/**"
      - "/auth/oauth/token"
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  • 对网关服务进行配置安全配置,由于Gateway使用的是WebFlux,所以需要使用@EnableWebFluxSecurity注解开启;
/**
 * 资源服务器配置
 * Created by macro on 2020/6/19.
 */
@AllArgsConstructor
@Configuration
@EnableWebFluxSecurity
public class ResourceServerConfig {
    private final AuthorizationManager authorizationManager;
    private final IgnoreUrlsConfig ignoreUrlsConfig;
    private final RestfulAccessDeniedHandler restfulAccessDeniedHandler;
    private final RestAuthenticationEntryPoint restAuthenticationEntryPoint;

    @Bean
    public SecurityWebFilterChain springSecurityFilterChain(ServerHttpSecurity http) {
        http.oauth2ResourceServer().jwt()
                .jwtAuthenticationConverter(jwtAuthenticationConverter());
        http.authorizeExchange()
                .pathMatchers(ArrayUtil.toArray(ignoreUrlsConfig.getUrls(),String.class)).permitAll()//白名单配置
                .anyExchange().access(authorizationManager)//鉴权管理器配置
                .and().exceptionHandling()
                .accessDeniedHandler(restfulAccessDeniedHandler)//处理未授权
                .authenticationEntryPoint(restAuthenticationEntryPoint)//处理未认证
                .and().csrf().disable();
        return http.build();
    }

    @Bean
    public Converter<Jwt, ? extends Mono<? extends AbstractAuthenticationToken>> jwtAuthenticationConverter() {
        JwtGrantedAuthoritiesConverter jwtGrantedAuthoritiesConverter = new JwtGrantedAuthoritiesConverter();
        jwtGrantedAuthoritiesConverter.setAuthorityPrefix(AuthConstant.AUTHORITY_PREFIX);
        jwtGrantedAuthoritiesConverter.setAuthoritiesClaimName(AuthConstant.AUTHORITY_CLAIM_NAME);
        JwtAuthenticationConverter jwtAuthenticationConverter = new JwtAuthenticationConverter();
        jwtAuthenticationConverter.setJwtGrantedAuthoritiesConverter(jwtGrantedAuthoritiesConverter);
        return new ReactiveJwtAuthenticationConverterAdapter(jwtAuthenticationConverter);
    }

}
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  • WebFluxSecurity中自定义鉴权操作需要实现ReactiveAuthorizationManager接口;
/**
 * 鉴权管理器,用于判断是否有资源的访问权限
 * Created by macro on 2020/6/19.
 */
@Component
public class AuthorizationManager implements ReactiveAuthorizationManager<AuthorizationContext> {
    @Autowired
    private RedisTemplate<String,Object> redisTemplate;

    @Override
    public Mono<AuthorizationDecision> check(Mono<Authentication> mono, AuthorizationContext authorizationContext) {
        //从Redis中获取当前路径可访问角色列表
        URI uri = authorizationContext.getExchange().getRequest().getURI();
        Object obj = redisTemplate.opsForHash().get(RedisConstant.RESOURCE_ROLES_MAP, uri.getPath());
        List<String> authorities = Convert.toList(String.class,obj);
        authorities = authorities.stream().map(i -> i = AuthConstant.AUTHORITY_PREFIX + i).collect(Collectors.toList());
        //认证通过且角色匹配的用户可访问当前路径
        return mono
                .filter(Authentication::isAuthenticated)
                .flatMapIterable(Authentication::getAuthorities)
                .map(GrantedAuthority::getAuthority)
                .any(authorities::contains)
                .map(AuthorizationDecision::new)
                .defaultIfEmpty(new AuthorizationDecision(false));
    }

}
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  • 这里我们还需要实现一个全局过滤器AuthGlobalFilter,当鉴权通过后将JWT令牌中的用户信息解析出来,然后存入请求的Header中,这样后续服务就不需要解析JWT令牌了,可以直接从请求的Header中获取到用户信息。
/**
 * 将登录用户的JWT转化成用户信息的全局过滤器
 * Created by macro on 2020/6/17.
 */
@Component
public class AuthGlobalFilter implements GlobalFilter, Ordered {

    private static Logger LOGGER = LoggerFactory.getLogger(AuthGlobalFilter.class);

    @Override
    public Mono<Void> filter(ServerWebExchange exchange, GatewayFilterChain chain) {
        String token = exchange.getRequest().getHeaders().getFirst("Authorization");
        if (StrUtil.isEmpty(token)) {
            return chain.filter(exchange);
        }
        try {
            //从token中解析用户信息并设置到Header中去
            String realToken = token.replace("Bearer ", "");
            JWSObject jwsObject = JWSObject.parse(realToken);
            String userStr = jwsObject.getPayload().toString();
            LOGGER.info("AuthGlobalFilter.filter() user:{}",userStr);
            ServerHttpRequest request = exchange.getRequest().mutate().header("user", userStr).build();
            exchange = exchange.mutate().request(request).build();
        } catch (ParseException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return chain.filter(exchange);
    }

    @Override
    public int getOrder() {
        return 0;
    }
}

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micro-oauth2-api

最后我们搭建一个API服务,它不会集成和实现任何安全相关逻辑,全靠网关来保护它。

  • pom.xml中添加相关依赖,就添加了一个web依赖;
<dependencies>
    <dependency>
        <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
        <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
    </dependency>
</dependencies>
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  • application.yml添加相关配置,很常规的配置;
server:
  port: 9501
spring:
  profiles:
    active: dev
  application:
    name: micro-oauth2-api
  cloud:
    nacos:
      discovery:
        server-addr: localhost:8848
management:
  endpoints:
    web:
      exposure:
        include: "*"
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  • 创建一个测试接口,网关验证通过即可访问;
/**
 * 测试接口
 * Created by macro on 2020/6/19.
 */
@RestController
public class HelloController {

    @GetMapping("/hello")
    public String hello() {
        return "Hello World.";
    }

}
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  • 创建一个LoginUserHolder组件,用于从请求的Header中直接获取登录用户信息;
/**
 * 获取登录用户信息
 * Created by macro on 2020/6/17.
 */
@Component
public class LoginUserHolder {

    public UserDTO getCurrentUser(){
        //从Header中获取用户信息
        ServletRequestAttributes servletRequestAttributes = (ServletRequestAttributes) RequestContextHolder.getRequestAttributes();
        HttpServletRequest request = servletRequestAttributes.getRequest();
        String userStr = request.getHeader("user");
        JSONObject userJsonObject = new JSONObject(userStr);
        UserDTO userDTO = new UserDTO();
        userDTO.setUsername(userJsonObject.getStr("user_name"));
        userDTO.setId(Convert.toLong(userJsonObject.get("id")));
        userDTO.setRoles(Convert.toList(String.class,userJsonObject.get("authorities")));
        return userDTO;
    }
}
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  • 创建一个获取当前用户信息的接口。
/**
 * 获取登录用户信息接口
 * Created by macro on 2020/6/19.
 */
@RestController
@RequestMapping("/user")
public class UserController{

    @Autowired
    private LoginUserHolder loginUserHolder;

    @GetMapping("/currentUser")
    public UserDTO currentUser() {
        return loginUserHolder.getCurrentUser();
    }

}
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功能演示

接下来我们来演示下微服务系统中的统一认证鉴权功能,所有请求均通过网关访问。

  • 在此之前先启动我们的Nacos和Redis服务,然后依次启动micro-oauth2-authmicro-oauth2-gatewaymicro-oauth2-api服务;

项目源码地址

github.com/macrozheng/…

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