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写给前端程序员的英文学习指南 | 掘金技术征文-双节特别篇

前言

中秋国庆月,无酒无诗,无相见,为掘友伏乞三愿:

一愿掘友安泰,二愿所思常健,三愿清辉拂照处,岁岁佳宴。

那么问题来了,我是如何渡过这8天呢?

下图展示的就是这8天过的情况(沸点):

达达前端技术社群:囊括前端Vue、JavaScript、数据结构与算法、实战演练、Node全栈一线技术,紧跟业界发展步伐,一个热爱前端的达达程序员。以下写给程序员的英文学习指南,每天看一遍。

名词

名词:用来表示人,事物,地点,时间,事件以及抽象概念等名称的词。

名词的分类:普通名词(可数名词:个体名词,集体名词,不可数名词:物质名词,抽象名词),专有名称。

  • 个体名词:university大学,worker工人,customer顾客,program节目。
  • 集体名词:audience听众,crew全体船员,family家庭,plice警察,staff全体员工。
  • 物质名词:air空气,water水,coffee咖啡,meat肉,milk牛奶,paper纸,wool羊毛,ink墨水。
  • 抽象名词:childhood童年,confidence信心,patience耐心,pride自豪,strength力气,wealth财富。
  • 专有名词:Beijing北京,Chinese中国人,Tuesday星期二,April四月。

可数名词的复数变化

有规则的复数形式

  1. 一般在名词后加-s,如kite-kites风筝,dog-dogs狗,pea-peas豌豆。
  2. -s,-sh,-ch,-x 等结尾的名词加-esbus-buses公交车,class-classes班级。
  3. 以“辅音字母+o”结尾的名词(多数情况下)加-es/以元音字母+o结尾的名词一般加-spotato-potatoes土豆,tomato-tomatoes西红柿,radio-radios收音机,zoo-zoos动物园,photo-photos照片,kilo-kilos公斤,cargo-cargos,cargoes货物,motto-mottos,mottes箴言,zero-zeros,zeroes零,mosquito-mosquitos,mosquitoes蚊子。
  4. -f-fe结尾的名词大多数把ffe改为v再加-esknife-knives刀子,leaf-leaves树叶,life-lives生命,roof-roofs屋顶,cliff-cliffs悬崖,belief-beliefs信仰,scarf-scarfs,scarves围巾。
  5. 以辅音字母+y结尾的词,变y为i再加-es以元音字母+y结尾的词或以y结尾的专有名词变复数时直接加-sbaby-babies婴儿,city-cities城市,factory-factories工厂,study-studies书房;day-days日子,boy-boys男孩儿,toy-toys玩具。

不规则复数形式

  1. 单复数同形,deer-deer, sheep-sheep, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese
  2. 变元音字母,man-men, woman-women, Englishman-Englishmen, tooth-teeth, foot-feet, German-Germans
  3. 其他,child-children, phenomenon-phenomena

名词的所有格

's所有格

  1. 一般情况下在名词词尾加's:James's study詹姆斯的书房,John's sister约翰的姐姐
  2. -s-es结尾的复数名词,直接在其后加"'":my parents's hometown我父母的故乡
  3. 不以-s结尾的复数名词,直接在其后加's:the children's books孩子们的书
  4. 复合名词在词尾加'ssomebody else's umbrella别人的雨伞

特殊形式

  1. neza's and dada's parents 哪吒的父母和达达的父母
  2. neza and dada's parents 哪吒和达达的父母

of所有格

  1. 一般来说,无生命的名词常用of所有格
  2. of所有格有时也用于表示人和其他有生命的名词
  3. 地名,交通工具名以及与人的活动有关的无生命名词可用of所有格,也可用's所有格
The windows of the house face the sea.
That's the opinion of dada, not mine.
the girl's name / the name of the girl
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名词的修饰词

  1. 可数名词的修饰词:few, a few, many, a number of, a great many, hundreds of
  2. 不可数名词的修饰词:little, a little, much, a great deal of, a large amount of, a bit of
  3. 既可修饰可数名词也可修饰不可数名词的词:some, any, a lot of, plenty of, masses of, enough, all
  4. 修饰物质名词的容量词或单位词:a cup of, a piece of news, a bag of rice

冠词

冠词是虚词,是名词的一种标志。a, an称为不定冠词,the称为定冠词。

不定冠词的用法

I have a beautiful backpack.

My mother is a worker.

A comrade is waiting for you outside.

a third

Take the medicine twice a day.

It's a wonderful coffee.

She is a disappointment to us.

a lot, a pair of, a glass of, have a good time, in a hurry, as a matter of fact, take a walk, at a time, a little, a few
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定冠词的用法

The book in the desk is mine.

I saw a film last night. The film ended at 10p.m.

How do you like the film?

The earth turns round the sun.

He is the first one to come.

The city lies in the west of the country.

She is the most careful girl in class.

The Whites are kind to me.

I can play the piano.

The dog is an animal.

the Yellow River.

The wounded were brought to the hospital.

in the morning, on the right, at the age of, at the same time
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零冠词的用法

We are studying English.

Is that her book?

Summer is coming.

They are teachers.

When do you have lunch?

Football is very popular all over the world.
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动词

动词,根据动词的句法功能可以将动词分:限定动词和非限定动词,根据意义可分:状态动词和动作动词。

根据句法功能

  1. 限定动词,主动词:及物动词(ask,buy,find,say),不及物动词(arise,fall,die,arrive),连系动词(be, become, get, turn, look, seem, sound, feel, taste, smell, appear),助动词:(be, do, have, shall, will),情态动词:(can, could, may, might, shall, will, should, must)。

  2. 非限定动词:to+vto walk, to talk, to work, to smilev-ingtalking, walking, working, smilingv-edwalked,talked,worked,smiled

根据词汇意义

  1. 状态动词:like, dislike, think, guess状态词;stand, lie, sit仪态词
  2. 动作动词:sit,stand,work, walk,learn,keep持续性动词,finish,join,leave,come,go,die终止性动词

动词有五种基本形式,动词原形,一般现在时第三人称单数,过去式,过去分词,现在分词。

ask, asks, asked, asked, asking

study, studies, studied, studied, studying

stop stops stopped stopped stopping
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  1. 一般现在时第三人称单数:一般动词加-s;以/s/f/tf/音素结尾和以字母-o结尾的动词,加-es;以辅音字母+y结尾的动词,变yi-es
work works
read reads
wash washes
watch watches
do does
apply applies
carry carries
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  1. 现在分词构成:一般情况下直接加-ing;以不发音的-e结尾的动词,去掉e再加-ing;已重读闭音节结尾,且末尾只有一个辅音字母的动词,要双写这个辅音字母再加ing;少数以-ie结尾的动词,先变iey,再加-ing,以-oe,-ee,-ye结尾的动词,直接加-ing
ask asking, find finding, meet meeting

write writing, use using, ride riding

put putting, cut cutting, prefer preferring, refer referring

lie, die, tie -> lying dying tying

see seeing, agree agreeing
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  1. 规则动词过去式,过去分词的构成:一般情况加-ed;以不发音的-e结尾的动词,加-d;以辅音字母+y结尾的动词,变y为i,再加-ed;以重读闭音节结尾,且结尾只有一个辅音字母的动词,双写这个辅音字母后再加-ed
ask asked asked
like liked
carry carried
plan planned
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短语动词

  1. 动词+介词:for, about, over, after, into, at, to, on, across, with
account for 解释,说明 break into 强行闯入 call for 去接(人),需要

care for 喜欢;照顾  care about 在乎 come across 偶然碰到

deal with 处理;对付 get over 克服 laugh at 嘲笑

look after 照顾 look into 调查 look for 寻找

run into 撞到;偶然遇上 stand for 代表 stick to 坚持

wait for 等候 wait on 伺候
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  1. 动词+副词:
break off 折断;中止 bring in 引进;赚取 bring up 抚养;提出;呕吐

call off 中止;叫停 carry out 执行 cut off 切断

find out 查明; 查出 get in 收割 give away 捐赠

hold up 举起;阻碍  point out 指出;指明 put off 推迟

put on 穿上;上演 put out 使熄灭 put up 举起;张贴

pick up 捡起;接某人 take off 起飞 take up 举起;开始从事

tear up 撕碎 turn away 打发走 turn off 关闭

turn down 调小 turn in 上交 turn up 调大;出现
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  1. 动词+名词
lose heart 灰心 lose patience 失去耐心 lose weight 减肥

make sense 讲得通 make the bed 整理床铺 make a bet 打赌

make a bow 鞠躬 make faces 扮鬼脸 take action 采取行动

take aim 瞄准 take breath 歇口气 take care 当心

take charge 看管 take one's time 慢慢来 take effect 生效

take exercise 做运动 take place 发生 take power 取得政权

take office 就职
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  1. 动词+副词+介词
come up with 提出 get away from 逃离 get along with 进展

get down to 开始认真做 go in for 喜欢 hold on to 抓住

keep away from 远离 keep up with 跟上 live up to 不辜负

look down upon/on 蔑视 look forward to 期盼 look about for 到处寻找

look out of 从...往外看 make up for 弥补 put up with 容忍

settle down to 开始做某事 run out of 用光
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  1. 动词+介词+名词
  • 动词后需要带宾语类
bring... to an end 使...结束
bring... under control 使...在掌控下
keep... in mind 牢记
keep... in touch 使保持联系
bear... in mind 牢记
put... at ease 使... 放松
put... into effect 使... 生效
learn... by heart 背熟
know... by heart 熟记
set... on fire 点火烧
take... into account 把...考虑在内
take... into consideration 把... 考虑在内
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  • 动词后不能带宾语类
burst into tears 突然大哭起来
come into being 形成
come into power 执政
come into use 开始被运用
come into effect 生效
go to bed 上床睡觉
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  • 动词+名词+介词
make contributions to 对... 做出贡献
make friends with 与... 交朋友
make fun of 取笑
make peace with 讲和
make progress in 在...取得进步
make room for 为... 腾出空间
make sense of 理解,弄懂
make use of 利用
take account of 考虑
take advantage of 利用
take care of 照顾
take charge of 负责,看管
take delight in 以...为乐
take hold of 握住
take notice of 注意到
take part in 参加
take pride in 为...感到自豪
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动词时态

  1. 一般现在时:
  • 表示现阶段经常性,习惯性的动作或状态:usually,often,always,sometimes,every day,once a week等时间状态连用。Father always reads newspapers after supper
  • 表示客观真理,科学事实以及格言,警句:The sun rises in the east and sets in the west.太阳东升西落。
  • 表示十分确定会发生或按照时间表进行的事情,用一般现在时可以表示将来,句子中可以有将来时间,通常限于表示“运动”的短暂性动词。The train leaves at 8:00 in the morning
  • 在时间状语从句中和条件状语从句中,用一般现在时代替一般将来时,句子可以表示将来。Please ring me up as soon as you arrive in Beijing
  • 一般现在时用于倒装句中可以表示正在发生的动作。Here comes the bus
  • 人的心理活动和感官动作一般用一般现在时而不用现在进行时表示:I hope you have a good trip
  1. 现在进行时:
  • 结构为“助动词be(am/is/are)+现在分词”,表示现在正在进行的动作。It's raining outside
  • 表示现阶段正发生而此刻不一定在进行的动作:He is writing a novel these days
  • 表示即将发生的动作,一般指近期安排好的事情,常见的动词有:I'm leaving early tomorrow morning
  • 表示频繁发生或反复进行的动作,He is always losing keys
  • 以下动词通常不用于进行时:短暂性动词,感官动词,主观意愿动词,存在动词,占有与从属动词,认知动词。
  1. 一般将来时:
  • 结构为“助动词will/shall+动词原形”,表示将来某一时刻的动作或状态。I will leave for Canada tomorrow
  • 现在进行时有时与某些瞬间动作的动词连用可表示按计划,安排将要发生的动作。I'm meeting Tom at the train station this afternoon
  • 既定的时间如生日,日历,课时安排,交通时刻表等通常用一般现在时表示将来的动作。The plane takes off at 4:00 p.m.
  • "am/is/are going to + 动词原形" 表示打算或准备要做的事情,或者主观判断即将要发生的事情,而“am/is/are to + 动词原形”表示安排或计划中的动作。He is to get married next year
  • "be about to do" 表示马上就要发生的事,一般不与具体的时间状语连用。The film is about to start
  1. 现在完成时:
  • 结构为助动词have/has + 动词的过去分词,表示一个发生在过去的,对现在仍有影响的动作。I have never seen such fine pictures before
  • 表示在过去开始一直延续到现在的动作或状态。I have been away from my hometown for thirty years
  1. 现在完成进行时:
I have been working in the company for one year.
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  1. 一般过去时:
  • 表示过去发生的事或存在的状态
He came here in 2009
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  • 表示过去一个阶段中经常发生,反复发生的事情
He never drank coffee.
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  1. 过去进行时:
  • 结构为“was/were+现在分词”,表示过去某一时刻或某阶段正在进行的动作。
He was watching TV this time yesterday.
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  • 表示从过来某一时间看将要发生的动作,常表示过去“渐渐”“快要”“马上”等。
We were running out of rice.
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  • 表示过去一个阶段频繁发生或反复进行的动作
He was always helping others when he lived here.
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  1. 过去完成时:
  • 结构为助动词had + 动词的过去分词,表示过去某一时间或某一动作发生之前已经完成的动作,即过去完成时所表示的时间是“过去的过去”。I had just finished half of the work by yesterday
  • 表示过去未曾实现的愿望,打算或意图: I had hoped to be back last night, but I didn't catch the bus
  1. 过去将来时
  • 结构为助动词should(第一人称)或would(第二,第三人称)+动词原形,表示在过去预计将要发生的动作或存在的状态。He was seventy-eight and in two years, he would be eighty
  • 表示纯粹的将来时用wouldshould,表示打算或主观认为的事情用was/were going to +动词原形.You were going to give me your telephone number, but you didn't
  • 表示一个过去经常性的动作:When it rained in the day, he would bring an umbrella with him
  1. 将来进行时
  • 结构为助动词will/shall+be+现在分词,通常和某一时刻连用,表示将来某一时间正在进行的动作。This time tomorrow we will be flying to Beijing
  1. 将来完成时
  • 结构为will/shall+have+过去分词,表示到将来某个时间即将完成的动作,常跟由be,when,before等引导的时间状语连用。The project will have been completed before the end of the year
  1. 将来完成进行时
  • 结构为will/shall+have been+现在分词,表示一个连续的或经常性的动作到将来某个时间完成时还将继续进行。By the end of the month he will have been working here for ten years

情态动词

  1. can/could
能,会,表能力,She can dance

有时会 My hometown can be very cold.

表推测,往往用于否定句或疑问句中 The man can't be Mr.Da - he's gone to Beijing.

表示请求和允许,Can/Could I have a look at your new design?

表惊异,怀疑,,不相信的态度 How can you believe him?
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  1. may/minght
表示允许,许可: May I listen to music while doing homework? No, you mustn't

表示请求允许时,might比may 的语气更委婉些。 May/Might I trouble you to pass me the book?

表示可能性的推测。might比may的语气显得更加不肯定。I must go home at once. Mary might visit me
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  1. will/would
表示意志或意愿。 will 现在 would 过去 I will tell you about it.

用于第二人称表示请求,建议,用would 比 will 委婉,客气。 Would you come this way, please?

表示习惯性动作,惯于,I would swim in the lake after school.

表示规律的“注定会”用will, Man will die without air.
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  1. need表示需要必要。做情态动词,仅用于否定句和疑问句。Need I go now? Yes, you must

  2. dare 表示敢,敢于。做情态动词,主要用于疑问句,否定句,和条件从句中,一般不用于肯定句中。Dare he tell them what he knows?

  3. must

表示必须,必要,语气比should, ought to强烈,其否定形式mustn't表示不准,不应该,禁止 Drivers mustn't drive after drinking 

Must I finish my homework before eight?

表示有把握的推测,意为一定,准是,用于肯定句:He must be watching TV
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  1. ought to
  • 表示应该,同should ; Humans ought to/should stop polluting nature
  • 表示推测,意为想必。He ought to get to France by now
  1. shall
  • 用于第一,第三人称疑问句中,表示说话人征求对方的意见和向对方请示。Shall he go there with us tomorrow
  • 用于表示推测,意为可能,应该。He should pass the math exam.
  • why/how+should结构表示说话人对某事不能理解,感到意外,惊异,意为竟会。Don't ask me.How should I know?

被动语态

动词的被动语态

1.一般现在时(am/is/are+done)You are wanted on the phone.

2.一般过去时(was/were+done)The library was built in 2000.

3.一般将来时(will be + done)They will be invited to your birthday party.

4.现在进行时(am/is/are being + done)The car is being repaired.

5.现在完成时(have/has been + done)如:The work has been finished.

6.过去将来时(would be + done)The worker said that the tree would be planted.

7.过去进行时(was/were being + done)The door was being painted then.

8. 过去完成时(had been + done)He had a good rest after the work had been finished.
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被动语态的基本用法

  1. 当强调动作的承受者,将承受者作为谈话的中心时用被动语态。
This book was written by Lu Xun.
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  1. 当没有必要说出动作的执行者或根本不知道动作的执行者是谁时常用被动语态。
All the work has been finished by now.
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  1. 当动作的执行者不是人而是无生命的事物时常用被动语态。
The window glass was broken by a stone.
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4.有时出于礼貌,不便提到动作的执行之,可用被动语态。

Enough has been done for you, but you've made little progress.
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动词不定式

  1. 做主语:
To see is to believe

It be 名词 to do

It takes sb. + some time + to do

It be 形容词 + for sb. + to do

It be 形容词 + of sb. + to do

It seems(appears) + 形容词 + to do

It seems necessary to make a plan for studying this course.
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  1. 做宾语:
1。跟动词不定式做宾语的动词有:afford,aim,appear,agree,arrange,ask,decide,bother,care,choose,
come,dare,demand,desire,determine,expect,endeavor,hope,fail,happen,help,hesitate,learn,long,mean,manage,offer,plan,prepare,pretend,promise,refuse,seem,tend,wait,want,wish,undertake.

2。用疑问句+to+动词原形结构做宾语的动词有:decide,know,consider,forget,learn,remember,show,understand,see,wonder,hear,find out,explain,tell等.

Please show us how to do that.

3。当复合宾语中的宾语是不定式时,先用形式宾语it代替不定式,把不定式置于补语之后。主语+动词+it+补语+to do 句式。

We think it important for us to learn a foreign language well.
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3.做宾语补足语和主语补足语:

see,hear,look at,watch,notice,observe,feel

I heard she open the door.

get sb to do sth, leave sb to do sth 通常要加to,只有have,let,make等跟不带to的动词不定式做宾语补足语。

You don't have to make Paul learn. He always works hard.

He was often heard to read Enghlish.
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  1. 做表语:
不定式可放在be动词或其他连系动词后面,做表语。

The only thing to do is write to him.
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  1. 做定语:
1.表示将来的动作:I have many letters to type.

2.与被修饰词之间有动宾关系,如是不及物动词,则需加介词:Please give me some books to read.

3.In English study, we still have a long way to go.
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  1. 做目的状语:
To succeed, you must first of all believe in yourself.
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  1. 做结果状语:
so... as to...
such... as to...
enough...to... 
only to ...
too ... to...

The child is old enough to dress himself.
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  1. 做原因状语:
I'm sorry to hear that.
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  1. 不定式的主动形式和被动形式
The book is said to have been translated into many languages.
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  1. 不带to的不定式的几种情况
Why not go out for a walk?

She helped her mother to prepare for supper.

Last night I did nothing but watch TV.

Since she is angry, we had better leave her alone.
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现在分词和动名词

现在分词和动名词的时态和语态

I found him lying on the ground.

Jack denied having broken the cup.

The bird missed being caught.
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过去分词

  1. 过去分词构成:eat-eaten,leave-left,go-gone,come-come
  2. 做表语:I was amazed at the news
  3. 做定语:used books,fallen leaves,cooked food
  4. 做补语:I'll have my house painted tomorrow
  5. 做状语:Asked about her telephone number, she didn't respond.
  6. 独立主格结构:The test finished, we'll have our summer vacation

代词

this(这个) these(这些)
that(那个) those(那些)
both neither(二者都不) either二者之一 one...the other 一个。。。另一个
many,much 许多 some, 一些 a few, a little 有一点儿 few, little 很少
who, whom, whose, waht, which
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介词及介词短语

简单介词:about,above,across,at,in,on,from,for,beside,between,with

合成介词:nearby,into,within,without,throughout,outside,inside

短语介词: according to, instead of, in front of, because of, out of

双重介词:from behind, until after

时间介词:in, on, at, till, until, since, before, after, during, over, by, throughout

表方式的介词:in, by, through, with, without
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  1. I live near my school
  2. The boy with long hair is Jack
  3. We are of the same age.
  4. Make yourself at home

with+复合宾语

with + 名词/代词 + 形容词
with + 名词/代词 + 副词
with + 名词/代词 + 现在分词
with + 名词/代词 + 不定式
with + 名词/代词 + 过去分词
with + 名词/代词 + 介词短语
with + 名词/代词 + 名词
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He just sat there with his mouth open.
He fell asleep with the light still on.
With so many people watching, she felt at a loss.
With nothing to do, he slept the whole day.
He stood for an instant with his hand raised.
The old man walked with a stick in his hand.
He died with his daughter yet a school girl.
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1.marry结婚,在表达get/be+married(与。。。结婚)这个意义时介词要用to,不用with

2.表示和...相同时,英语不用with,而用as,表示...和...不同时,用from。
A is the same as B.
A is different from B.

3.表示在。。。帮助下,英语用with,不用under。 with the help of the teacher.

4.表示在广播,电视,电话里时,英语用on the radio/on TV/on the telephone

5.表示孔,洞,窗户在墙上时,英语用in表示,但表示图像等在墙上时,用on表示。He made holes in the wall. 
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介词与动词的常用搭配

  1. v + to
adjust to 适应
attend to 处理
agree to 赞同
belong to 属于
come to 达到
drink to 为...干杯
lead to 通向
occur to 想起
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  1. v + at
call at 访问某地
laugh at 嘲笑
shoot at 朝。。。射击
arrive at 到达
wonder at 对...感到吃惊
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  1. v + in
believe in 信任
bring in 引进
hand in 上交
break in 闯入
fill in 填充
involve in 涉及
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  1. v + from
come from 来自
date from 始于
die from 死于
escape from 逃出
result from 起因于
suffer from 受苦
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  1. v + for
account for 说明;解释
stand for 象征
care for 在意
apply for 申请
long for 盼望
search for 搜寻
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形容词和副词的比较级和最高级

  • 一般情况下直接加-er,-est:long-longer-longest
  • 以字母-e结尾的加-r,-st:nice-nicer-nicest
  • 以辅音字母+y结尾的,将y改为i加-er-est,如happy-happier-happiest
  • 以重读闭音节结尾的,双写结尾辅音字母加-er,-est:big-bigger-biggest
  • 特殊形式:good/well-better-best many/much-more-most ill/bad-worse-worst little-less-least old-older-oldest far-farther-farthest
  • 多音节的形容词,副词的比较级,最高级:比较级在形容词,副词前面加more最高级在形容词,副词前面加most:beautiful-more beautiful-most beautiful
  • 形容词加ly变成的副词的比较级和最高级用moremost,如slowly-more slowly-most slowly
  • 由动词的过去分词转化为成的形容词,用more和most表示比较级和最高级,如tired-more tired-most tired

形容词,副词比较等级的用法

  1. 表示A超过B
  • A+谓语+形容词比较级+than+B
  • A+谓语+副词比较级+than+B
I'm older than her.
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  1. 表示A不及B
  • A+谓语的否定式+形容词/副词比较级+than+B
  • A+谓语+less+形容词/副词原级+than+B
  • A+谓语的否定式+so(as)+形容词/副词原级+as+B
He doesn't run faster than his sister.
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  1. 表示A和B程度相同
  • A+谓语+as+形容词/副词原级+as+B
He runs as fast as I
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  1. 其他比较语句:
  • the+比较级...the+比较级
  • 比较级+and+比较级(越来越...)
  • the+比较级+of the two+
  • 特殊疑问句+be+形容词比较级,A or B
  • 特殊疑问句+实义动词+副词比较级,A or B
The more careful you are, the fewer mistakes you will make.

As summer is coming, the day is becoming longer and longer.

The taller of the two girls is my sister.

Which is more difficult, Lesson One or Lesson Three?

Who runs faster, da or dada?
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  1. 倍数比较级的几种句式
  • A + 谓语 + 倍数 + the size
  • A + 谓语 + 倍数 + as big as B
  • A + 谓语 + 倍数 + 比较级 + than + B
The new teaching building is twice the size of the old one.
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比较等级的常见修饰语

1. 修饰原级: fairly, quite, rather, so, very, too 等。I am very lucky.

2. 修饰比较等级:much,even,far,rather,still,any,no,a bit, a little, a great deal, a lot, by far等

3. 修饰最高级:by far, almost, 序数词等。Tom works by far the best in his factory.
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表示最高级意义的几种常见结构

  1. the+最高级+of/among/in
This is the oldest theatre in China.
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  1. be one of/among + the + 最高级 + 复数名词
Beijing is among the greatest cities in the world.
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  1. 比较级+than+any other+名词
Tom is taller than any other student in his class.
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  1. 比较级+than+(any of)+the other+名词(复数)
DA  works harder than (any of) the other students in his class.
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  1. 比较级+than+all other+名词
John does better than all other boys here.
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  1. 比较级+than+anyone+else
He is more interested in English than anyone else in his class.
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  1. 比较级+than(+any of)+the others
She is younger than the others.
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  1. 在含有never,nobody或no的句子中使用“不定冠词+比较级”
I have never seen a better film.
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虚拟语气

  1. 与现在事实相反:
虚拟条件句:
If + 主语 + 动词的过去式(be动词用were)

主句:
主语+should/would/could/might+动词原形

例句:
If I had time, I would attend the party.

If I were you, I should try again.
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  1. 与过去事实相反
虚拟条件句:
If + 主语 + had + 过去分词

主句:
主语+should/would/could/might+have+过去分词

例句:
If you had taken my advice, you would have passed the English exam.
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  1. 与将来事实相反
虚拟条件句:
If + 主语 + 动词的过去式
If + 主语 + were to + 动词原形
If + 主语 + should + 动词原形

主句:
主语+should/would/could/might+动词原形

例句:
If you came tomorrow, we would meet again.

If it were to rain tomorrow, we would stay at home.

If he should not come tomorrow, we should put off the meeting till next Monday.
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倒装和省略

  1. 常见的完全倒装:
come, go, rush, run 等不及物动词的句子里:in, out, up, down, away, off, over, next, such, back等副词做的状语置于句首。

Out rushed the students the moment the bell rang.

On the desk lie  piles of books.
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  1. 常见倒装句
Do you like jazz?

Only in this way can you solve this probeam.

Seldom do I go to work on foot.

I saw the film last week.So did she.
so/neither/nor置于句首时,表示前者的情况也适用于后者或者具备两种情况

Were I you, I would do so.

So dark is the room that I can hardly see anything.
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状语从句

  1. 时间状语从句
  • 时间状语从句从放在句首,句中,句尾
  • 从属连词when,while,as 都可用来引导时间状语从句,意味当。。。的时候
  • until/till是指某一持续性行为持续到某一时间点
  • 表示时间的名词短语也可引导状语从句
  • 表示“一。。。就。。。”的时间状语很多
  • 在时间状语从句中,用一般现在时代替一般将来时,一般过去时代替过去将来时
I'll let you know as soon as he arrives.
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  1. 地点状语从句
  • 地点状语从句可置于句首,句中,或句尾
  • Leave the book in the place where it is
  1. 原因状语从句
  • Since he has come, you needn't go
  1. 比较状语从句
  • 同级比较:as...as...
  • 不同级比较:not as/so... as...结构
  • 差级或高级比较:...than...结构,I can run faster than he
  • 比较递进关系的状语从句:the+比较级...,the+比较级...
The more you exercise, the healthier you will be.
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  1. 条件状语从句
  • 条件状语从句可置于句首或句尾:Take an umbrella with you in case it rains.
  • 在条件状语从句中,用一般现在时代替一般将来时,一般过去时代替过去将来时。
You'll fail the exam unless you study hard.
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  1. 目的状语从句
  • 目的状语从句可置于句首,句中,句尾。
He got up early so that he could get there in time.
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  • 在目的状语从句中常含有情态动词
  • 当主句和从句的主语一致时,目的状语从句可以与表示目的的不定式或介词短语转换。
  1. 结果状语从句
  • so + 形容词/副词 + that
  • so many/few/much/little + 相应形式的名词 + that ...
  • so + 形容词 + a/an + 可数名词单数 + that...

such... that... 的用法:

  • such+a/an+形容词+可数名词单数+that...
  • such+形容词+可数名词复数+that...
  • such+形容词+不可数名词+that...
  1. 让步状语从句
  • 让步状语从句可置于句首,句中,句尾
  • though/although
  1. 方式状语从句
  • 引导句:as, as if, as thoughWhen at Rome, do as the Romans do
  • Look at the clouds in the sky and it looks as if/as though it is going to rain
  • He speaks English as if he were an Englishman

名词性从句

  1. 连接词:That he will come to visit us this afternoon is certain now
  2. 连接代词:What we should do next remains unknown.
  3. 连接副词:Why she did that wasn't clear她为什么那么做还不清楚。
  • It is + 形容词 + that从句
  • It is + 名词 +that从句
  • It + 不及物动词 + that从句
  • It is + 过去分词 + that从句

连接词:主语从句里的连接词都可用于表语从句

  • 主语+be+that/wh-从句
  • 主语+连系动词+that/as if

节日

  1. New Year's Day 元旦(1月1日)
  2. New Year's Eve 除夕(农历腊月三十)
  3. Spring Festival; Chinese New Year's Day 春节(农历正月初一)
  4. Lantern Festival 元宵节(农历正月十五)
  5. International Working Women's Day 国际劳动妇女节(3月8日)
  6. Arbor Day 植树节(3月12日)
  7. Tomb Sweeping Day; Pure Brightness Festival 清明节(4月4日至4月6日中的一天)
  8. International Labour Day 国际劳动节(5月1日)
  9. Youth Day 青年节(5月4日)
  10. Nurses' Day 护士节(5月12日)
  11. Dragon Boat Festival 端午节(农历五月初五)
  12. International Children's Day 国际儿童节(6月1日)
  13. Army Day 建军节(9月10日)
  14. Mid-Autumn Festival 中秋节(农历八月十五)
  15. Teachers' Day 教师节(9月10日)
  16. Double Ninth Festival 重阳节(农历九月初九)
  17. National Day 国庆节(10月1日)

句子

impact 影响 kidneyjuvenile 青少年 diabetes 糖尿病 donor 捐赠者 decline 下降

The chorus was singing The Ode to Joy.合唱队在演唱《欢乐颂》。

Customers and the public should be aware of that problem 客户和公众应该意识到这一问题。

The saint had a lowly heart. 圣人有谦诚之心。 lowly 地位低的,不重要的,无足轻重的。

He came in search of wealth, status, and power. 他来寻找财富,名望和权力。 status威望,地位。

in chorus 一起;一齐;同时。Thank you, they said in chorous

blushing and gazing 为现在分词作伴随状语。

The children ran out of the room, laughing and talking happily 孩子们跑进屋,边笑边说,很是快乐。

blush脸红 to blush with embarrassment 尴尬得面颊绯红 gaze 注视,盯着

She gazed at him in amazement 她惊异地注视着他。

grin 露齿笑,咧嘴笑 He always had this grin 他总是这样咧嘴笑。

He started to applaud and the others joined in. 他开始鼓掌,其他人也跟着鼓起掌来。

loudly 大声地:She screamed as loudly as she could她声嘶力竭地尖叫着。

applause 鼓掌,喝彩 Give her a big round of applause! 为她热烈鼓掌!

a series of 一系列:The incident caused a whole series of events that nobody had expected 那一事件引发出一连串谁都没有料到的事。

accompany 伴随,与。。。同时发生 He stepped up the stage accompanied by enthusiastic applause. 伴随着热烈的掌声,他走向了舞台。

His wife accompanied him on the trip 那次旅行他由妻子陪同

The singer was accompanied on the piano by her sister 女歌手由她姐姐钢琴伴奏。

一种... 的感觉 a sence of 一种...的感觉

Colors like red convey a sense of energy and strength 红色之类的颜色可以给人充满活力和力量的感觉。

Much to her embarrassment she realized that everybody had been listening to her singing她意识到大家一直在听她唱歌,感到很不好意思。

I didn't want to embarrass him by kissing him in front of his friends我并没想当着他的朋友吻他会使他感到难堪。

He felt embarrassed at being the center of attention 他因自己成为众人瞩目的中心而感到很尴尬。

embarrassing令人尴尬的。an embarrassing situation令人难堪的处境

不可避免地,必然地:inevitably :新闻界照例又夸大了这件事Inevitably,the press exaggerated the story

那是这个决定的必然后果。It was an inevitable consequence of the decision

善意的,好心的,well-meaning 他是一个很善良的领导者He is a well-meaning leader

特别的事情:occasion 要把每一顿饭都弄得特别一些。Turn every meal into a special occasion

He was nominated for the best actor award 他获得最佳演员奖提名。

on this occasion这次 I enjoy an occasional glass of wine.我喜欢偶尔喝一杯红酒。

She was awarded the prize for both films 她的脸部电影双双获奖。

ambivalence矛盾情绪,很多人以矛盾的态度对待电视及其对生活的影响。Many people feel some ambivalence towards television and its effect on our lives.

矛盾情绪的ambivalent , 她似乎对新工作喜忧参半。She seems to feel ambivalent about her new job.

symbolize象征He came to symbolize his country's struggle for independence他逐渐成为祖国为争取独立而斗争的象征。

symbol象征:White has always been a symbol of purity in Western cultures在西方文化中,白色一向象征纯洁。

symbolic象征性的:The dove is symbolic of peace鸽子是和平的象征。

triumph打败,战胜,成功:France triumphed 3-0 in the final

die of死于... die from 死于... It is a race against time to stop people dying from starvation为抢救那些即将饿死的人而分秒必争。

She appeared to be in her late thirties看样子她快四十岁了。

We appear to be a good couple, but actually we are not我们看上去似乎是不错的一对,但事实上却不是。She appears sick她好像病了。

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